Mongols, the Mongolian Ethnic Minority of China :
Mongol (Mongolian) Ethnic Minority in China :
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The Mongol Ethnic Minority is the 9Th Largest Ethnic Minority Group in China.
Mongol Ethnic Culture in China :
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The Mongolian Ethnic Minority is the 9Th Largest Ethnic Minority Group in the Peoples Republic of China after the Majority Han, the Zhuang, the Manchu, Hui, Miao, Uygur, Tujia and Yi Peoples.
The majority of Mongol Ethnic Minority members mainly reside in North China in the Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region. According to the official Chinese Government publications, the Mongolian ethnic group found within China consists of as many as 6 different tribes. Traditionally, these were divided by land, tradition and most of all lineage, however under the Manchu conquest and occupation of both Mongolian territories and all of the Han Chinese held lands, the Mongolians were re-organized and integrated into the so called Manchu (8) Banner System, each tribe or allied group of tribes bearing their own flag and having their own military garrison (which at the time was strictly overseen by Manchu Leadership). Ethnically distinct, however in close connection with their fellow nomadic Tribes in the north,  east and west, up to as recently as 60 years ago the majority of Mongolians lived a traditional nomadic lifestyle, or otherwise one closely associated with the grasslands and steppes. It was only as late as the 19Th century that the first Han Chinese incursions into previously Mongolian held lands started occurring on a grand scale. Ever since, where the grasslands were been turned into farmlands, the factual Mongolian borders have been creeping northward, the traditional nomadic lifestyle gradually but surely being replaced by the sedentary lifestyle of the Han Chinese migrants. As a result, places with Mongolians names such as Hohhot (Heiahote), Baotou and even Ulanqab (now Jining) have been overwhelmed by Han Chinese migrants who by now make up the majority of the population in these former nomadic tent camps and marketplaces turned into giant industrial cities and hubs of Han Chinese progress.
History of the Mongolian Minority in China :
Traditional Mongolian Culture is often romanticized as a life of freedom, culture and the roaming of Steppes on horse-back however, there are however many more things to be revealed about Mongolian customs, beliefs, Mongolian tales, legends and Folk Festivals.

Read More in: "Mongolian Ethnic Culture in the Peoples Republic of China". and in the China Report Chapter on "Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region".
Sound Bonus - Chinese Mongolian - Zazal (Traditional Music From Mongolia, Musique Traditionnelle De Mongolie) - By Manduhai Egschiglen
- Ethnic Minorities of China in General
- Islamic Minorities in China
- Manchu-Tungusic Peoples in China
- Mongolians , Mongol Ethnic Minority
- Ethnic Minorities of European Descent in China
- Korean Ethnic Minority
- Tibetans and Other Ethnic Minorities
Apart from the main population residing in Inner-Mongolia Ethnic Autonomous Region, there are various Mongolian enclaves across The Peoples Republic of China in the shape of Autonomous Prefectures and counties. Most notably the North-Eastern Province of Jilin has a large Autonomous Community of Mongolians. These Jilin Province Mongolians reside near the City of Siping on the border between Jilin Province and Liaoning Province.
An important Community of Ethic Mongolians can be found in the West of China at Haixi Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province and there are other concentration of Ethnic Mongolians found at Weichang Manchu and Mongol Autonomous County in Hebei Province and in the two Mongolian autonomous prefectures of Boertala and Bayinguoleng (Bayin Gholin) in Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region. There are further seven autonomous counties with a large percentage of Mongolian inhabitants in Xinjiang AR, Qinghai Province (formerly Amdo Province of East Tibet), Gansu, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning.

According to the original Chinese State propaganda endorsed from its very founding by the Communist Party and its Peoples Republic, The Mongolians are one of the Five Major Ethnic Groups of the early Revolution, who were the Han, the Tibetans, The Mongols, the Manchu's and the Hui (Muslims). They are therefor symbolized by one of the 5 stars depicted on the Chinese National Flag and are considered one of the happy minorities supporting and carrying forth the ideals of the Peoples Republic of China.
For More Details on Inner-Mongolia AR and other Mongolian Autonomous Regions, Prefectures and Townships - Click Here !
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A Schematic overview Map of Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region entire and large parts of neighboring Nations of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazachstan, Russia, The Republic of Mongolia, as well as Chinese Provinces and Territories of Inner-Mongolia AR, Gansu Province, Qinghai Province and Tibet Autonomous Region.
This Map Includes Cities and Towns (shown by size) - Main Ethnic Communities in Xinjiang AR, Main Monuments & landmarks of Xinjiang AR, the Taklamakan Desert in South-Central Xinjiang AR, major highways, provincial railroads, a variety of border passes in the Karakoram Mountain Range and the Tian Shan Mt. Range, plus main waterways, rivers and lakes of this large region. - Click Map to go to Full Version !
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Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture
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Yining (Kulja), Xinjiang-Uygur AR
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Traditionally, the Mongolian population of the border area's and Inner Mongolia adhered either to shamanistic/ animalistic or Buddhist believes. Appearing in a much rawer and wilder form among the Mongolians than as found in Chinese Buddhist Temples today, the particular brand of Mongolian Buddhism is closely related to the Tibetan forms of Buddhism.
Until the appearance of the firebrand Socialist and Communist propaganda and beliefs, there was a close historic connection between the adhereants of the faith in Mongolia and those in Tibet. Among things, the third Dalai Lama of Tibet (who was in fact the first) received his title Dalai Lama (meaning Ocean of Wisdom) from the great Mongolian leader Altan Khan in the year 1587 AD, exchanging military domination of Mongolians over Tibet for the religious and ethical overlordship of Tibetans (specifically the Yellow Hat Sect of Tibetan Buddhism) over the Mongolian populace. As is popularly know, there were abundant Buddhist Monks and several permament Monasteries in both Inner- and Outer Mongolia, well into the 20th century. Unfortunately, the Buddhist Faith in the Russian dominated area's of (Outer) Mongolia, as well as within what is today regarded as the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region suffered tremendously from the rise of Communist Ideals and its woeful practices in Asia. The outer Mongolians suffered first, soon to be joined by their Inner Mongolian brethren who would suffer the full force of popular Chinese prejudice and Communist- and Maoist inspired hatred of traditions and "backward practices" beginning as soon as the Peoples'  Republic of China managed to get on its feet in the years 1949 to 1951 AD. In addition, other similar peoples on the fringes of the establishing Peoples' Republic suffered similar fates. Although persecutions of faith, culture and language were by no means exclusive to that period, in general all ethnic peoples and their cultures, - including the Han Chinese themselves, suffered the worst during the turbulent, dangerous and dehumanizing period of the so called "Cultural Revolution" (1966 AD - 1976 AD officially, although arguably it had been set in motion years earlier). According to Chinese Government publications also used by NGO's even today around 55% of Inner Mongolian ethnic Mongolians are said to adhere to (the Mongolian brand) of Buddhism, although modernization and urbanization may lead to further assimilation and turns towards different beliefs.
In the Year 2000 AD Census there were 5 million 813 thousand and 900 Ethnic Mongolians registered to be residing within China.

The huge Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region and home of most ethnic Mongolians was the first Autonomous Region to be established, more than two years before the proclamation of the establishment of the Peoples Republic of China. It was founded on May the 1st (Labor Day) of 1947 AD.
Inside its vast 1.2 million square kilometers of surface area live over 2 million ethnic Mongolians and a 21 Million + more of variety of other ethnic groups such as the Manchu, Hui, Uygurs, Daurs, Ewenkis, Oroqens, Koreans and of course the Han.

The Mongols are not only found in Inner Mongolia however, many have migrated across other North-Eastern Provinces, and smaller groups and individual Mongols are spread around much further being found in Gansu Province, Qinghai Province, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Hebei, Henan, Sichuan, Yunnan and large Cities of China as well. Among the large Cities Beijing is especially noted for its Mongolian enclave.
This page was last updated on: May 28, 2017
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China Report - Map of Ancient Asian Empires and Tribes in Asia 565 AD
An overview Map of Asia Entire clearly demarkating the Territories, Nations and Tribal Area's of the Continent in the year 565 AD. Japan is split between the Yamato Kingdom and Emishi. In Korea three Kingdoms Rule among which the largest Goguryeo. China is split in a Northern Dynasty of the Qi, and a Southern Dynasty of the Chen. While in the Far west the Qi Empire stretches as far West as Dunhuang, the Silk Road is temporarily blocked by the unification of Mongol Tribes in the Gokturk Khanate and the appearance of the smal XiYe City State in the Tarim River Basin.
The ancestors of the Mongol minority in China immigrated into lands that are now part of the Peoples Republic of China from Central Asian Territories during various episodes in the past 2 millenia. During this long period, many peoples formed and moved about within the Central Asian plains.
As can be seen from adjacent Map, in the 6th century AD much of what today is considered the original Mongolian cultural and inhabitation zone was occupied by a proto-Turkish people, the Gokturks identified by Chinese as the Gaoche. The Gokturks eventually established the Gokturk Khanate (identified in China as Juan-Juan) dominating a wide and large area covering from west to east large parts of Central Asia, the current day Buryat Mongol Republic (part of the Russian Federation), the Altay Mountains, the northern half of current day Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and both Inner and Outer Mongolia as well as parts of Manchuria. Illustrative of the mobility of nomadic tribes and their Kingdoms, the neighboring Khirgiz tribes were already identified, but at the time far to the north east of their current day territories in a region identified today as the Trans Baykal (after Lake Baykal).

The current day Mongolians are considered to have originated from a tribe living in the territories of current day Inner Mongolia.  As (Chinese written) history records it,  Mongol or Mongolian was originally a designation for a tribe living along the Erguna River. However, in the seventh century during the rule of the Tang Dynasty (618 AD – 907 AD) over more Central Chinese Regions they migated to the grasslands of western and central Mongolia.
It may be noted that after the fall of the Tang Dynasty, much of what is today considered North China fell without the sphere of the Chinese realm for quite some time seeing the rise of several large and powerful Nomadic Kingdoms in these territories, who's rule is
often described in China as having been Dynasties, suggesting that these were in large part (Han) Chinese or heavily Chinese influenced Dynasties, whereas in fact they were not.
While the Han Chinese Culture managed to get on its feet again, eventually unifying under the Song Dynasty, the North was
In truth however, the Mongolian joining of the Peoples Republic was often not entirely voluntary and after integration, Mongolian and other so called Ethnic Minorities groups were mostly along for the ride. Although it can not be denied that Mongolians have been integrated in all levels of the Chinese State system, including the Military and the layers of the Communist Party leadership, it can also not be denied that at least during the Mao Zedong Era (1935 AD - 1976 AD) (and likely well beyond) the entire state was largely administered centrally, and therefor priorities as seen by the Leadership in Beijing were pushed forward, as recorded by historians and others, often leaving little room for the traditional aspects of Mongolian and other cultures. Notoriously, the previously lush wetlands at the mouth of the Black River (Ejin Gol) in China known as the Hei River and delta, have been entirely mismanaged in the earlier years of the Peoples Republic, the over use of water for irrigating cotton fields and fruit orchards draining river and groundwater while silting the land, leading to a dried out landscape and by now completely parched former lake regions. In fact, as a German Television crew visiting Inner Mongolia recently described it; "the west of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region consists only of parched lands, desert and wilderness and the majority of the population now lives in the eastern parts where most activities occur".
The Chinese migrant farmers which had taken residence up in Mongolia due to the fact that the water situation there was less acute as in their homelands in northern Shaanxi Province have again been faced with water shortage and drought, their numbers since dwindling and many migrating once more, seeking a "better life" in the larger population centers of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or even beyond.

Although throughout the building of the Peoples Republic of China Mongolian territories have been diverted away, and at various places become industrial- and mining centers, activities were relatively limited until the starting up of the Chinese
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economy, which happened at some time during the 1980's and is still continuing in many ways today.
In more recent times the territories of Inner Mongolia and also increasingly the Republic of Mongolia have been subjected to heavy mining activity, and in case of Inner Mongolia a renewed influx of Chinese migrants and an unprecedented industrial development. Bringing with them lifestyles that entirely contradict with traditional Mongolian way of life, which in many ways respects the prevailing eco-system and fragile nature, the new arrivals have drastically altered the landscape and increasingly the environment.
Eversince the 1990's increasing droughts have plagued border regions of the Peoples Republic of China, especially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Gansu, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, North Shaanxi Province and Hebei Province. Regions traditionally already lacking in precipitation and depending on irrigation of lands by either tapping a nearby river or depending on water from underground wells have since become hubs of large scale industrial projects, receiving for various specific reason large coal fired plants that generate electricity by burning the coal dug up from underneath of what were previously Mongolian grasslands and herding grounds. As can be glanced from adjacent Map by the World Resources Institute which combines drought data with the location of coal fired electricity plants which demand a lot of water for their operations, modern industrial demands compete with farmers and even herders on the grasslands for water. As a result, modern Mongolians, after having been side-lined on the fringes of a developing Industrial Nation, have now been overrun by even more overwhelming developments which threaten the very core of their existance. Over the past decade, news of Mongolians coming into conflict with the large, often Chinese owned, companies have frequently appeared in international media, with especially Radio Free Asia keeping close taps on the problems and outbursts of ethnic minority peoples across Asia and Inner Mongolia. Driven off their land by mining operations, their water depeleted by mining as well as Industries and confronted with a complete devastation of their place of residence, Mongolians in general are
A Map of the Peoples Republic of China clearly identifying (in color) the various regions facing extreme droughts. Combined within the Map are the locations of Coal fired electric plants identifying major industrial zones which have been sprung up under the 5 year plan to develop the previously under developed regions in the north and west.
Economic growth of the central Chinese regions has not necessarily lead to an improvement of living standards in the border provinces, certainly not for all.
disenfranchised and over the years have increasingly identified with their neighboring and fellow peoples in the bordering Republic of Mongolia.

In the year 2012 a Mongolian herdsman was overrun by a coal hauling truck, leading to a major flare up of tensions in Inner Mongolia. In other news the nation's longest traffic jam ever recorded occured between the mining locations in Inner Mongolia and the various industrial hubs encircling the Chinese Capital Beijing in Hebei Province.
In 2013, News of Monglian Tribes men standing up for their rights and being sentenced to death for anti-State activities proved to be a culmation of rising tensions so far. In the same year Greenpeace China published several articles on the Chinese State led Coal Mining Industry and associated Energy Sector, exposing how Mongolians were driven off their land without due compensation (if such a thing is at all possible considering it is all ancestral land), how industries flaunted rules of water management thus sapping the water table and increasing desertification many fold, and matters concerning water tainted with heavy metals, air pollution and dust storms.
Mongolian Ethnic Minority (1) Introduction / Index
Mongolian Ethnic Minority (2) History of the Mongolian peoples in China (PRC)
Mongolian Ethnic Minority (3) Mongolian Ethnic Culture
Mongolian Ethnic Minority (4) Mongolian Ethnic Autonomous Regions, Counties and Towns (in the PRC).
Whatever the Great Glories of the Mongolian Empire, they were shortlived across the Eurasian continent and in China they had officially been overthrown and renounced come the year 1368 AD. Thereafter, the Mongolians who lived within China were basicly doomed, not welcomed by the majority Han and no doubt subjected to threats and violence. As mentioned, the Mongolians - who had retained their seperate National and Culture - while staying in China ran for cover near the border. Other ethnic groups, which had moved into Chinese Territories with the successes of the Mongolian military invasions, and who had been reward with lands or other benefits, likewise suffered the antipathy of the populace, or were smply driven out or shunned back to their own communities. While the Han celebrated their success and, under guidance of their strong Emperor Hong Wu and his supposedly wise courtiers, were hearded back to traditional values of Han culture and wisdom, "others" who could not be fitted into the now much celebrated Han Culture would find themselves in dire times. The article " Mongol Nomadic Pastoralism" in the book "Silk Roads, Highways of Culture and Commerce" briefly mentions how Uzbeks, who had flourished doing trade in the Yuan Dynasty (when trade was overal more liberal in China due to the lack of emphasis on Confucian values (which loathed commerce as inherently disengenius and condemned as inciting the corruption of the soul) fell on extremely hard times immediately after the fall of the Yuan.  Nobody would have anything to do with them, so people would not do business with them either. Their businesses persihed and many returned up the Silk Road in the direction of their former homelands. Other of course, remained, for the time being condemned back to their own ethnic enclaves wherever that may have been.
One enclave in particular, the regions now parts of Yunnan Province, presented a considerable nutt to crack for the advancing Ming Armies of Emperor Hong Wu. These regions, previously under control of Tibetan and Burmese Tribes had been only vanquished by the young Kubilai on his rise to becoming the Great Khan of all Mongolians and the keeper of the Cathay Khanate with its multitudes of puny Han Chinese.

Mongolians on the Steppes of Mongolia during the Ming Dynasty:
Being eradicated within China but their Royal House and loyal remnants having been forced back to the grasslands, the Kingly remnants of the Mongolians insisted on keeping their title as Yuan. Thus, the name Great Yuan (大元) was formally carried on, and the Dynasty remained in competition with the new Dynasty of the Ming established in China. As the Ming felt that by tradition their could be only one Emperor to rule the realm, they dubbed the contuance of the Yuan Dynasty in Mongolian the Northern Yuan (北元) and saw it fit to continue the war against them.
A second result of the continuance of elite claims on the Yuan Title, the Mongolian tribes soon found themselves in conflict on who was the true inheritor of the Throne over all the Mongolians and, in many ways, so returned to a familiar pattern of nomadic familial strife.

In the early Ming Dynasty (1368 AD - 1644 AD), the Ming armies pushed beyond their baseline of the Great Wall of China and pursued the Northern Yuan forces into Mongolia. Initially, they were defeated in 1372, but were defeated by regrouped Mongolian Armies led by Ayushridar and his general Köke Temür. Yet growing stronger, the Ming Armies returned to the steppelands in the year 1380, waging a pro active and mobile war which proved costly but effective in the end. After a lengthy 8 year campaign the Ming did manage to defeat the Mongolians once more, sacking and burning Karakorum, previously to the rise of the Yuan Dynasty over China the Mongolian "Capital" and by then seen as the Northern Yuan capital "city".  Although it was disaster for the Mongolians, and the Ming thought they had seen the Yuan issue through to the end, this proved not be true.
In the aftermath of the sacking of Karakoram, the damaged Mongolian Leader Uskhal Khan was murdered by a political rival , one Yesüder, who is regared a descendant of Ariq Böke, the traditionalist Mongolian General and Royal Son who had been the political competitor of Kubilai before his crowning as the Great Khan. The usurping the Throne from the last Khan of the Mongolians who had earned respect manyfold on the battlefield did not help the Mongolian cause and in effect, what had been created as a Nation under the heavy hand of Temujin, the Great Genghis Khan, now shattered into its various elements.
The last Great Mongolian leader had been Tögüs Temür otherwise known the Uskhal Khan and his controversial death plunged the Mongolians back into the infighting that had occurred between the tribes over the previous decennia.

Over the years following the shortlived rule and death of Yesüder the Mongol Tribes split according to political alliance, and after being separated eventually regrouped into two branches, the East and the West branch, creating a situation and distribution of Mongolian Tribes across the steppes that is still very much relevant today.
The west branch or western Mongolians are commonly known as the Oirat Mongols (Khalmyks in the Russian Federation), whereas the the East branch are known as the Khalka Mongols. The Oirats of the west can be subdivided into various smaller tribes and branches, these being; the Dzungars (also: Choros or Ööled) who lend their name to the Dzungar Basin found in current day north Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, the Torghut, Dörbet, and Khoshut. More minor tribes of the Oirat family are the Khoid, Bayid, Myangad, Zakhchin, Baatud.

Mongolians in Ming China during the Ming Dynasty:
In this period, after the Fall of their Dynasty and stabilized rule over the (Han) Chinese territories, Mongolians were generally loathed among the Han Chinese populace and therefor driven slowly but steadily towards the fringes of their former Chinese Empire (the Cathay Khanate of Mongolia). Although Mongolians and sympathetic peoples and tribes held on in various places for some time, eventually nearly all Mongolians fled towards their original homelands, with Ming Armies hot on their trail. During the early years of establishment of the Han derived Ming Dynasty in China Ming Armies frequently penetrated northward onto the Mongolian grasslands initially defeating various Mongolian strongholds and leaving the previously sharp Mongolian war-machine in tatters and disarray.
However, not long after the Ming would find the chasing of Mongolians on the plains an expensive and ineffective mode of defense. Unable to capture the vast territories, the Ming eventually grew tired of their anger against the Mongolian Tribes and reverted to a less mobile form of warfare. Establishing several garrison cities, later Ming Emperors would prefer not to do battle with the Mongolians in the open field where they were superior to Chinese in many respects. As the decades counted on, a new and final version of the Great Wall of China would arise, marking the official geographic and cultural borders between Mongolian and Han Chinese Territories.
Although still shunned and even officially economically sanctioned by the Ming Rulers of China, left to their own devices on the steppes and grasslands, Mongolian tribes soon reorganized themselves and slowly started trickling back down south.
Some Mongolian Tribes thus reached the southern fringes of the Gobi Desert, Inner Mongolia and the Ordos Desert of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in the following decades. A noteable incident in the year .. UNDER EDITING.

Almost 50 years after the death of the legendary Khan Genghis it was his now almost equally legendary grandson Kubilai Khan, who drove the Mongolian Forces onward to subdue the Chinese Song Dynasty and with it almost all of what was then considered Chinese territory. In 1260, Kublai Khan (1215-1294) became the Great Khan and moved his capital from Helin north of the Gobi Desert to Yanjing, which was later renamed Dadu (Great Capital). (See also: History of Beijing (1) Early History.)
Thus, already being the great Khan of Mongolia in the year 1271 AD he established the Yuan Dynasty (1271 AD - 1368) of China becoming Emperor Shizu Kublai.

During much of the 13th Century, the Mongolians were in power in China and on the entire Asian Continent, although the further away from Mongolian homelands, the more nominal the Mongolian central Leadership would be. Necessarily, the Mongolians were the first to invent a horse-born nationwide mailing system following trade routes and horse-paths which cut right across the Eurasian continent, for the first time connecting various far flung nations, kingdoms and cultures together in one giant communicating system.
During this exceptional period in Mongolian, Chinese and world History, the Chinese Nation was opened up to the World, its territory incorporated in the largest Empire of all Time. During this period cultural communication and trading links on both land and sea were greatly improved leading to century of Internationalization and mutual assimilation of Cultures.

As may be noted, during the height of the succes of the Mongolian Empire, Mongolians and their ethnic group stood at the top of the social ladder in much of East Asia, and especially in the subjected territories of China this meant that the Han Chinese, who had resisted bravely were sent down to the 5th and lowest class in the social pecking order of the times.
In contrast to other later rulers and Emperors, the Mongolian overlords did implement a rigid Government organization sytem upon the various Chinese Provinces, however altogether they remained aloof of the soft sedentary dwellers and did in essence not fraternize with the local population. Instead, they tended to keep to their Mongolian steppe ways and prefered not to adopt too much of the Chinese culture and lifestyle.
Certainly during the early period of the Mongolian created Cathay Khanate, Mongolians presented themselves as militarily superior overlords of Chinese Regions, being satisfied with taking up commanding posts, and harvesting taxes from the destitude multitudes of Chinese farmers that populated the fertile regions. As a result of the divide, Mongolian rulers had little inclination to mingle in local affairs, and altogether such culturally cherished aspects as the experession of religion were allowed to go on unhindered.
(For full details on the Mongolian Rule in China during the Yuan Dynasty please refer to: Yuan Dynasty 1271 - 1368 AD.)

Although later Mongolian Rulers, especially the Kubilai Khan (Kublai), adopted a different stance towards the Chinese culture showing far more willingness to learn, adapt, integrate and make use of Chinese Advisors, invention and the like, the Mongolian Rule never became Chinese, which eventually formed one reason for its demise.
Other factors that have been mentioned are mismanagement, endemic corruption and an ill fated series of natural phenomena and disasters. Whichever way it may, in the early 15th century several mass epidemics triggered peasant uprisings in the fertile and important south. Soon sweeping northward across the Nation, the Mongolians in China - their numbers puny in comparison to the far majority of the Chinese population, saw their positions fall and son had to flee the Nation pursued by angry Chinese mobs, armies and militia's. One of the main themes uniting the rebels was the hatred of Mongolians which soon combined with a form a Nationalist fervor for traditional (Han) Chinese values, cultural expressions and the like.
The fall of the Mongolian Dynasty went fairly rapidly and resulted in a mass exodus of Mongolians, their families and sympathizers towards the north and west, eventually fleeing towards their original homelands.
Although the majority Han Rebel Commander had installed himself in the southern city of Nanjing, declaring the Ming Dynasty in 1368 AD, in reality its first Emperor Hongwu still had a struggle ahead to consolidate his powers and sweep away the various Mongolian remnants holding on to fringes of the Nation.
Interestingly, it was in this period that the Mongolian armies were driven as far west as Jiayuguan, in what is current day Gansu Province, leading soon to the building of the important ending Fortress of the Great Wall of China. Although at that time the Ming were still thoroughly on the offensive widening the borders of the Empire it was a significant moment. The tradition of the Great Wall was restored, in effect for the first time since the demise of the Tang Dynasty (806 AD - 907 AD) in China.
While the Ming would pursue an agressive strategy of pursual for some time, following Mongolian tribes deep into the grasslands and steppes, already in the first stages of the Ming Empire, the Han Chinese again chose to rely heavily on walls in the defense of their national borders. The build up of the Jiayuguan Fortress into the massive citadel that it became started as early as the year 1372 AD, marking a new western and northern border of the Ming Chinese Empire. Not much later, the Chinese army led by General Feng Heng reached northward along the Hei River (Ejin Gol) attacking the former Tangut city of Khara Koto established in the year 1032 AD, according to legend (and scriptures found at Khara Khoto).
During the military campaign against the Mongolian Garrison the Chinese forces diverted the river away from the city eventually forcing the Mongolian defenders into attack out the gates. Some 100 years after Marco Polo passed through the city, naming it as Edzina, the inhabitants and soldiers were slaughtered and the city abandoned to the elements. Its ruins were only refound in the 19th century when Russian explorer-spies roamed the Gobi Desert and stumbled upon the remains of the sand buried city.
China Report - Map Yuan Dynasty Mongol Empire in Time 1206 AD - 1294 AD
A Schematic Map of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan (TeMuJin) and descendants through its several stages of conquest in its short but Impressive Existance in History. Timeline depicts the Mongol Conquest starting in the Year 1206 AD, when Genghis Khan first united the Mongol-Turkic Tribes of Mongolia and Lake BayKal becoming Great Khan. The Timeline continues through the year 1219 AD, the year 1223 AD taking Transoxiania, 1227 AD, 1237 AD when the Northern Jin Dynasty of China was annihilated, 1259 AD conquering ancient China above the Jiangste River and 1279 AD when all of China was taken and the Yuan Dynasty Established under the Kublai Khan. Last is the Year 1294 AD when the
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Mongol Empire reached its largest geographical size and Zenith, 22% of world land area, but through lack of central leadership and over-expansion fragmented into 4 large parts, then imploded upon itself.
Many generations later after the move of the proto-Mongolian people into the grasslands of what today is considered central and western Mongolia, in the 12th century, a legendary leader, Temujin aka Genghis Khan, unified the Mongolian tribes organizing into a mighty miltary machine that would then be ready to conquer and subdue neighboring Nations and regions. The unification occurred in the year 1206 AD when Genghis became the Great Khan of all Mongolian Tibes united under his banner.
The first Nation to bear the brunt of the highly motivated Mongolian Armies were the Tangut (Xi Xia), who although fighting bravely in a total of 6 massive campaigns, were eventually overrun by the Mongolians. Eventually subjecting themselves to the might of the Great Khan Genghis, the Tangut Kingdom, essentially became a province of Mongolia. As a result of this
even today, most people would regard much of the former Tangut territories as a part of the Mongolian Tribal lands identified as "Inner Mongolia". Since the Tangut later rose in rebellion, and on orders of the successors of Genghis were hunted down to the very last man, the the Tangut literally went extinct leaving the territory open to Mongolian herdsmen and their families.
Although much can be said about the historic details of this point, in essence this situation has survived to this day. Although Inner Mongolia is internationally regarded as a part of the Peoples Republic of China, even the Peoples Republic of China and its Communist Party have essentially recognized the historic facts and longstanding Mongolian inhabitation and thus has labeled it the "Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region" (See below; established in 1947 before
the official establishment of the Peoples Republic of China itself).
Temujin had died in August of 1227 AD, according to various tales after being wounded in the final battle with the Tangut (although there are other versions), however his sons and grandson would continue the conquest leading to the demise of the Jurchen derived Jin Dynasty in 1237 AD. Their Capital at Beijing had fallen already previously in 1234 AD, however it would later return to life as the Great Capital of the Mongolian Emperor in Chinese populated lands and become known to the worlds as Dadu or Khanbalik.
(See also: "History of Beijing (1) Early History: Liao, Jin and Yuan Dynasties")
Before Genghis Khan died, he assigned Ögedei Khan as his successor and split his empire into khanates among his sons and grandsons which would eventually lead to increasing hostility between the various ruling Mongolian families and their clans. The story of the strife between the clans was as old as Mongolian history and probably even older. Depending who was in charge as Great Khan, the vanquished territories were essentially split up, and the various Clans and their loyal armies distrubuted about the realm enjoying considerable freedom of action.
In 1947 AD, two years before the declaration of the establishment of The Peoples Republic of China, the Inner-Mongolia Autonomous Region was established. At the Time, large parts of it, if not all, was already liberated and under control of the Communist Party of China and its Peoples' Liberation Army (PLA).

Forced resignation to the expanding of the still establishing Peoples Republic of China. UNDER EDITING:

Todays Mongol Families have adopted modern elements in their lifestyle. Although traditions of horse-riding are still very strong. Since the late 1980's motorcycles and later Jeeps have been popular for long distance transport and easy of use. Many Mongol Families have abandoned their traditional yurts and instead live in more modern mud or brick houses.
ruled by the Buddhist Liao Rulers derived from roaming Khitan nomadic tribes. A people who had their first Capital at Datong in what today is North Shanxi Province, and later the Jurchen based Jin Dynasty led by what one may dub a Manchurian Tribe. At the time Mongolians were a weaker and more minor group and large swaths of what today are considered the original Mongolian homelands were actually ruled in large part by other groups. Especially, the Inner Mongolia territories of today were part of the Tangut Kingdom, a semi-race of powerful warrior traders who's Empire spanned between Xinjiang, Gansu, Inner Mongolia and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, where they had their first Capital at Yinchuan.
In China this Kingdom is known as Xi Xia, or western sunrise, and is usually depicted as a minor regional Dynasty with heavy Chinese traits such as the use of Chinese characters and script, book printing and the like. Other non Chinese historians will however point out that Chinese influences such as found in the Tangut script are but nominal and overal the Chinese traits of the Tangut people are superficial.
It is also pointed out that nomadic people across the steppes of Eurasia had never led a completely isolated life and so technologies, knowledge. cultural traits and goods were shared among many peoples at the time.
Being adapt traders, as well as militarily strong, the Tangut formed a buffer between the Han Chinese People and far rougher and less civilized peoples of the Inner Steppes (todays Republic of Mongolia) leading to benefits for all sides involved. Growing rich off taxes and trade along the crucial pathways in Central Asia, the rise of the Tangut then in turn contributed to the success of later Empires such as the one founded by the Mongolian Leader Genghis at the dawn of the 12th Century.
Schematic overview Map of East and Central Asia depicting the various Kingdoms and realms of the 11th century in the regions.
After the fall of the Tangut to the Mongolians, the Jin, who in their process of the conquest of lands previously occupied the Tang and the later absorption of Khitan Liao held lands had founded the city of Beijing for the first time, found themselves dangerously exposed to the Mongolian hordes and soon found themselves at war as well.
A delicately painted wooden plank depicting a typical Tangut Man dressed in a long robe. An object found inside a desert tomb in the region of Jiuquan Prefecture in Gansu Province.