A Full overview Map of the Eurasian continent showing its various cities and nations in the 19Th Century, the (growing) Colonial possessions throughout Eurasia, North Africa and the Middle-East, and the growth of Colonial enclaves, possessions and protectorates between 1801 AD and 1900 AD.
Essentially, on this Map there are are three main zones of interest:
1) The first zone of interest lies in the South where -after a blockade of the overland trading zones of the Silk Road to and from China- maritime European Nations have embarked on their "Age of Discovery" (early 15th century to early 17th century). Along the southern Route from the West to the East (China) trading post and fortresses are gradually turned into strongholds, bases and colonies or protectorates.
2) The second zone of interest lies in the North. There, expanding Eastward from Russian Territory and the Capital Moscow, the Russian Empire saw its rise as a major power within Eurasia. Continuing throughout the 19Th Century and culminating in the construction of the trans-Siberian railway in the 1890′s, Russia completes its northern encirclement of Qing Dynasty China (1644 AD - 1911 AD).
3) Rising last is the Empire of Japan, which after a rapid industrialization in the early 19Th Century will go on to annex the Island of Formosa, the Qing Dynasty Chinese protectorate of Korea in its entirety and move on to annex most of North-East China (Manchuria).
Notably: although not included in detail on this Map, this Era also saw the colonialist expansion of the United States of America. At the End of the 19Th Century the United States of America will rise as a Colonial Power entering the theatre via the Philippines (1898 AD) and Japan.

For full details on Treaty Ports, the year of annexation or forced opening and additional information see below this Map.
The China Report
Map Asia - History - Colonialism : Growth Dominions & Japan after 1801 AD
Kushk or Koshk , Kushk District, Herat Province, Afghanistan. -
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
Amritsar (Punjabi: ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤਸਰ IPA: [əmːɾɪtsəɾ], also colloquially known as ਅੰਬਰਸਰ, ambarsar), Punjab, India. - Main Sacred city for both Hindus and Sikh. Punjab was a province of British India from 1848 AD to 1947 AD.
Gardēz (Pashto: ګردېز, Persian: گردیز), Capital of Paktiā Province, Afghanistan. - No information on Gardez in the 19Th Century.
Chi Linh (District), Republic of Vietnam -  In the 19Th Century: after 1887 AD it became the capital of French annexed Indo-China.
Aomori, Empire of Japan
Kyoto, Empire of Japan
Sretensk (Russian: Сре́тенск), town of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia. - founded on bank of Shilka River in 1689 AD and granted town status in 1926. Not connected to Trans-Siberian Railway.
Liaoyang (simplified Chinese: 辽阳; traditional Chinese: 遼陽; pinyin: Liáoyáng), Liaoning Province, China (P.R.C.) - in the 20Th Century Liaoyang was the site of the Battle of Liaoyang (August 24-September 4, 1904), which was one of the major battles of the Russo-Japanese War.
Nagapattinam (Tamil: நாகப்பட்டினம் (nākappaṭṭinam) (previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam), Tamil Nadu, India - Former Dutch (& Portugese) trading settlement in India. By 1781 AD Taken from the Dutch. 1784 AD British Colonial port.  Returned to India in 1954 AD.
Barkul (Chen Si), Xianjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, P.R.C. - Qing Dynasty: remote trading post in Xinjiang. (Gansu Province)
East Korean Sea
Designates Japanese Treaty Ports, Concession.
Nanjing, Capital of Jiangsu Province
Tokyo, Capital of the Empire of Japan
Map of Same Area - Rise of European Colonialism in Asia 17Th Century
Changsha, Capital of Hunan Province, P.R.C. - In 1852 the Taiping forces laid a siege on Changsha, through 3 months, the Taiping gave up offensive and toward Wuhan.( Battle of Changsha (1852) )The 1903 AD Treaty of Shanghai between the Qing Dynasty and Japan opened the city to foreign trade.
Guiyang, Capital of Guizhou Province
Chengdu, Capital of Sichuan Province
Designates Russian City or Russian Controlled Territory.
Designates Colonial Possession or Territory in Asia.
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Beijing, Capital of Qing Dynasty Chinese Empire
Treaty Ports :
So called "Treaty Ports", were sea and later river harbors that were forcably opened under treaties
treaties forced on China after crushing defeats by Western Powers. The first ports were forced in the "Opium War" of 1840-42 AD, whereas the second round of forced international ports came with the
London, Capital of the British Empire
Berlin, Capital of Germany
Moscow, Capital of Russia.
Mukden also Fengtian (Today: Shenyang, Capital of Liaoning Province, P.R.C.)
Rome, Capital of Italy
Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, P.R.C. - Forced 1842 AD Treaty Port.
Chichahaer, Heilongjiang Province, P.R.C. - Until 1949 AD: Ethnic Capital of the Evenki Tribe of Manchuria. Remote trading post and Town.
Paris, Capital of France
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Osaka, Empire of Japan
Jehol or Chengde - Location of Imperial Summer Mountain Retreat (Today: Chengde, Hebei Province, P.R.C.)
Shanghai City Province, P.R.C. - 1842 Forced International Treaty Port
Macau, S.A.R., P.R.C. - Portugese lease in 1557 AD.
Hong Kong, S.A.R., P.R.C. - Forced Treaty Port of 1842 AD (First Opium War) leased to England until 1999.
Guilin, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, P.R.C.
Hue, Vietnam -  Then: Hue, French annexed Indo-China
Saigon, Vietnam -  Then: Saigon, Capital of French annexed Indo-China
Lhasa, Capital of Tibet - During the Qing Dynasty nominally part of Qing Dynasty China ; During the Republic of China - Capital of De Facto Independent Tibet
Weihai, Shandong, China (P.R.C). - Previously: Weihai or Weihewei, British Treaty Port in Shantung. Between 1898 AD and 1930 AD, the town was a British colony known as Weihaiwei or the Weihai Garrison (traditional Chinese: 威海衛; simplified Chinese: 威海卫; pinyin: Wēihǎi Wèi), and sometimes as Port Edward. It was forced as a concession from China in 1898 AD in order to serve as a counterbalance to the Russian presence at Port Arthur.
Qingdao, Shandong Province - in 19Th Centruy: Conceded to Germany in 1898 AD, German Colony known as Kiautschou Bay concession. Taken by Japan in 1914 AD as part of Hositilities in World War I. Awarded to Japan in 1918 AD.
Jinan, Shandong Province. P.R.C.
Lanzhou, Capital of Sichuan Province
Xining (Si Lung), Capital of Qinghai Province, P.R.C.- Then: Administrative Center of Amdo Province of Tibet (Seat of Chinese Governor)
Urumqi (Ti Wa), Capital of Xinjiang-Uighur AR, P.R.C. - Qing Dynasty: Administrative Center of Xinjiang (New Territories) falling under Soviet Influence (Russia) in the Great Game for Central Asia. Briefly Capital ofAutonomous and Independant Republic of East Turkestan (192? AD -1949AD)
Harbin, Capital of Heilongjiang Province, P.R.C.-  In 1898 AD an International (Open) City nominally part of China but under Russian, Japanese, German and British influence. Early 20Th Century: a Remote Town turned into Main Station on the North-East China Railway (Manchurian Railway), a branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
Yakutsk, Russia (Founded 1602 AD).
Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia - Founded: 1632 AD ; In the 19Th century a remote Cossacks settlement reaching 11800 citizens by 1897 AD ; later: main station on the Trans-Siberian Railway and Russian Military headquarters for Siberia Regions.
Irkutsk, Capital of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia - Founded: 1652 AD ; In the early 19Th century a place of Exile for Revolutionaty Anti-Tsarist ; By 1898 AD Main Station on the Trans-Siberian Railway.
Krasnoyarsk, Capital of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia - Founded: 1628 AD ; In 19Th Century the center of the Siberian Cossack movement. On January 26, 1822 AD, it was granted town status had become the administrative center of Yeniseysk Governorate. By the end of the 19th century, Krasnoyarsk had several manufacturing facilities, featuring a Main Station, railroad workshop for the Trans-Siberian Railway and an engine-house.
Chelyabinsk or Cheliabinsk, Capital of Chelyabinsk Krai, Russia - Founded as Fortress constructed 1736 AD, City of Russia by 1871 AD. 1896: Main Station and logistic center for the Trans-Siberian Railway.
Yeniseisk also Eniseisk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia - Founded: 1618 AD ; In the 19Th Century a stockaded Town, center for Russian colonization of Siberia, nodal point of (Trans-)Siberian River Routes the highways of the 19Th Century in remote Siberia.
Yeniseisk also Eniseisk, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia - Founded: 1618 AD ; In the 19Th Century a stockaded Town, center for Russian colonization of Siberia, nodal point of (Trans-)Siberian River Routes the highways of the 19Th Century in remote Siberia.
Xiamen, Fujien Province, P.R.C. - 1842 AD Forced International Treaty Port, then known as Amoy.
Fuzhou, Fujien Province, P.R.C. - 1842 AD Forced International Treaty Port
Hiroshima, Empire of Japan
Hakodate, Empire of Japan
Sagoshima, Empire of Japan
Khabarovsk, Capital of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia - Founded: 1858 AD ; In 1858, the area was ceded by the Chinese Qing Dynasty to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun. The Russians founded the military outpost of Khabarovka (Хаба́ровка),] named after a Russian explorer Yerofey Khabarov. The post later became an important industrial centre for the region. Town status was granted in 1880. In 1916 A Bridge across the Anur allowed the passing of the Trans-Siberian Railway connecting to Vladivostok.
Okhotsk (Охотск), Khabarovsk Krai, Russia - First Russian settlement on Pacific Coast, Founded: 1643 AD; for long time the location of a Fortress ; By 1731 Major Russian Seaport however with the Amur Annexation in 1860 and the shift of naval power to Vladivostok both Okhotsk and Ayan lost their importance.
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский), Khamchatka Krai, Russia - Founded by Danish navigator Vitus Bering, in the service of the Russian Navy. Bering reached Avacha Bay on July 10, 1740 ; During the 1854–1855 Crimean War, the city was put under siege by the Anglo-French forces, but never fell. Also known as Petropaulovski.
Bulun, today: Bulunsky Ulus (Russian: Булунский улус; Sakha: Булуҥ улууһа; Buluŋ uluuha), ulus (district) of the Sakha Republic, Russia - in the 19Th Century a renote outpost above the arctic circle populated with ethnic Yakuts (Inuits)
Yekaterinburg (Russian: Екатеринбу́рг, also romanized Ekaterinburg), Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia - Founded: 16723 AD, Town Status: 1798 AD
Omsk (Russian: Омск), Capital of Omsk Oblast, Russia - Founded as Fortress in 1716 AD ; In the nineteenth and early twentieth century, Omsk became the administrative center of Western Siberia and the Steppes (Kazakhstan) ; connected to Trans-Siberian Railway in 1890s.
Semipalatinsk now Semey (Kazakh: Семей / Semey), formerly known as Semipalatinsk (Russian: Семипала́тинск, until 2007), East Kazakhstan Province, Kazakhstan - Founded as Fortress on river Irtysh in 1718 AD ; In the 2nd half of the 19th Century construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway added to the city's importance, making it a major point of transit between Central Asia and Siberia
Tashkent (Uzbek: Toshkent, Тошкент; Russian: Ташкент, literally "Stone City"; English pronunciation: /ˌtæʃˈkɛnt/, Russian pronunciation: [tɐʂˈkʲent]), Tashkent Province,  the capital of Uzbekistan - Ancient Silk Road trading city thought mentioned by Buddhist monk Xuánzàng 玄奘 [602/603? - 664 CE] mentioned the name of the city as Zhěshí 赭時 ;  In May, 1865 AD conquered by Russia (against orders of the Tsar) ; Tashkent became the capital of the new territory of Russian Turkistan and a center of espionage in the Great Game rivalry between Russia and the United Kingdom over Central Asia ; Connected to Trans-Caspian Railway in 1889 AD.
Bukhara (Persian: بُخارا Buxârâ; Uzbek: Buxoro / Бухоро), from the Soghdian βuxārak ("lucky place"), Capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat) of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Toshkent, Тошкент; Russian: Ташкент, literally "Stone City"; English pronunciation: /ˌtæʃˈkɛnt/, Russian pronunciation: [tɐʂˈkʲent]),  - Ancient Silk Road trading city knowns as Buhe/Puhe(捕喝) in Tang China ; Bukhara played a role in The Great Game between the Russian and the British Empires' games. Charles Stoddart and Arthur Conolly were imprisoned there by the Emir, first thrown into a vermin pit for months, and then beheaded outside the Citadel. Joseph Wolff, known as the Eccentric Missionary, escaped their fate when he came looking for them in 1845.[15] Eventually it became a colonial acquisition of the Russian Empire.
Khiva or Choresm (Uzbek: Xiva / Хива; Persian: خیوه / Khiveh; Russian: Хива; alternative or historical names include Khorasam, Khoresm, Khwarezm, Khwarizm, Khwarazm, Chorezm, and Arabic: خوارزم), City in Xorazm Province, Uzbekistan - Ancient Silk Road trading City ; Former capital of Khwarezmia and the Khanate of Khiva (Kwarezmian Khanate) ; In 1873, Russian General Von Kaufman launched an attack on the city, which fell on 28 May 1873. Although the Russian Empire now controlled the Khanate, it nominally allowed Khiva to remain as a quasi-independent protectorate Khiva has been Part of Russia until 1924 when it became part of the Uzbek Republic of the USSR.
Goa, India - In 19Th Century: Portugese Colony from 1510 AD to 1961 AD.
Diu, India (Daman and Diu (Gujarati: દમણ અને દીવ, Marathi: दमण आणि दीव , Portuguese: Damão e Diu)  Union territory in India - In 19Th Century: Portugese Colony from 1510 AD to 1961 AD.
Daman, India (Daman and Diu (Gujarati: દમણ અને દીવ, Marathi: दमण आणि दीव , Portuguese: Damão e Diu)  Union territory in India - In 19Th Century: Portugese Colony from 1510 AD to 1961 AD.
Qingdao, Shandong Province - in 19Th Centruy: German Treaty Port 18??
German Colonial City
Goa, India - In 19Th Century: Portugese Colony from 1510 AD to 1961 AD.
Portugese Colonial City
Hue, Vietnam -  Then: Hue, French annexed Indo-China
French Colonial City
Puducherry (formerly About this sound Pondicherry ,Union Territory of India. In the 19Th Century: French colony, consisting of four non-contiguous enclaves, or districts, and named for the largest, Pondicherry. Town structure by Dutch Traders, French 1673 AD - 1954 AD.
Karikal, India - By a treaty signed on 12 January 1750 Pratap Singh ceded to the French 81 villages around Karaikal. This was all the territory the French possessed around Thanjavur when they surrendered to the British in 1761. The territory then passed twice to the British control before it was finally handed over to the French in 1816/1817 under the Treaty of Paris, 1814 AD. Returned to India in 1954 AD.
Hong Kong, S.A.R., P.R.C. - Forced Treaty Port of 1842 AD (First Opium War) leased to England until 1999.
British Colonial City
Singapore, Republic of Singapore. - Founded by Chinese during the 17Th Century. Later main British Colony and Port 1824 AD - 1959 AD.
Bangkok (Krongthep), Thailand. - In the 19Th Century: Independent Kingdom gradually falling under the influence of foreigners; Traders, missionaries who came from many European countries and North America. By 1860 many traders had formed economic alliances and treaties with Bangkok.
Rangoon (Yangon), Myanmar (Burma) - History: captured Yangon during the First Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) but returned it to Burmese administration after the war. Taken from Burma in 2nd Anglo-Burmese War of 1852 AD after which it became Capital and Commercial center of British Burma, a colony. Independent since 1948 AD.
Bulun, today: Bulunsky Ulus (Russian: Булунский улус; Sakha: Булуҥ улууһа; Buluŋ uluuha), ulus (district) of the Sakha Republic, Russia - in the 19Th Century a renote outpost above the arctic circle populated with ethnic Yakuts (Inuits)
Russian City/Concession
Vijayawada, India.
Cuttack, Orissa State, India. Founded 989 BC. - In the 19Th Century: the site of a Fortress, growing City and adminsitrative Capital of the Regional State.
Madras, India. - Lonstanding trading Port of Portugese & british in Tamil Nadu. Since 1640 AD British Fortress, growing into strongpoint of British Rule in Tamil Nadu.
Kozhikode also known historically as Calicut. - Portugese & Dutch trading Port on the Coast of India. Later taken over by British and secure by 1792 AD.
Urga also Ulan Bator, Capital of the Republic of Mongolia. - In 19Th Century: Capital of Mongolia, main trading city for Camel caravans & tea trade to Russia and Central Asia.
Gyangtse (Xigaze), Xigaze Prefecture, Tibet A.R., China (P.R.C) - In the 19Th Century part of the Qing Dynasty Empire (1644 AD - 1911 AD. It was historically considered the third largest and most prominent town in the Tibet region (after Lhasa, and Shigatse)
Kashgar or Kashi (Uyghur: قەشقەر, ULY: Qeshqer, UPNY: K̡ǝxk̡ǝr?, Chinese: 喀什 pinyin: Kāshí, Persian, Urdu, Hindustani: کاشغر / कशगार), Kashgar Prefecture, Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region, China (P.R.C.). - Historic silk road trading city,  1st mentioned in Han Dynasty records of 200 BC. Visited by Marco Polo.   In 19Th Centrury: :Restive part of Qing Dynasty China..  Revolts 1859, 1857 and great Dungan revolt (1862–1877)), a massacre of Uyghurs by Qing Dynasty loyalists troops.
Balkh, Balkh Province, Afghanistan. - Founded between 2000 BC and 1500 BC. Known to the Greeks as Bactria. Ancient center of Zoroastraism, Silk Road trading city and center of Buddhism. Visited by Marco Polo. In the 19Th Century: fell into the hands of the Afghans; it was conquered by Shah Murad of Kunduz in 1820, and for some time was subject to the Emirate of Bukhara. In 1850, Dost Mohammad Khan, the Emir of Afghanistan, captured Balkh, and from that time it remained under Afghan rule. In 1866, Balkh lost its administrative status to the neighboring city of Mazar-e Sharif.
Kabul (Caubel), Kabul Province, Capital of Afghanistan. - Capital of Afghanistan since 1776 AD. In 19Th Century: Situated in heavily disputed regiosn during the Rise of New Afghanistan under Pashtun rule.Invaded by British Indian Army in 1893 D9, who installed the unpopular Shah Shuj.Site of massacre of British Army 1841 AD. Battles with British Indian Army  in 1878 and 1879 AD.
Kandahar (Pashto: کندهار Kandahār, Persian: قندهار Qandahār, Ancient Greek: Αλεξάνδρεια Aραχωσίας Alexandria of Arachosia, Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. -Founded by Alexander the Greatin 330 BC. Former and 1st Capital of Afghanistan in 17Th Century.In the 19Th Century: occupied by British Indian forces in 1839 ADwith British Forces leaving in 1842 AD.Strive continued until 1880 AD when the British were finally defeated.
Lahore (Urdu: لاہور, Punjabi: لہور; pronounced [laːˈɦɔːr]  , Capital of Punjab Province, Pakistan. - In the 19Th Century under British rule (1849 AD –1947 AD)
Delhi, locally pronounced as Dilli (Hindi: दिल्ली , Punjabi: ਦਿੱਲੀ, Urdu: دِلّی) or Dehli (Hindi: देहली, Punjabi: ਦੇਹਲੀ, Urdu: دہلی), officially National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT)), India. - IIn 1639 AD, Mughal emperor Shahjahan built a new walled city in Delhi which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1649 AD to 1857 AD. In the 19Th Century:  2ndary administrative Capital of India both under British East Asia Company rule and under the British Raj.
Kumul (Qumul) or Hami (Uyghur: قۇمۇل, ULY: Qumul, UPNY: K̡umul, Chinese: 哈密; pinyin: Hāmì), ancient silk road oasis in Hami Prefecture, Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region, China (P.R.C.) - In the 19Th Century: Kumul was the capital of the Kumul Khanate, a vassal state to the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China. It was ruled by Maqsud Shah.
Herāt (Persian / Pashto: هرات) , Capital of Herat Province, Afghanistan. - At the time of Alexander the Great, Aria was obviously an important district. In late 330 BC, Alexander the Great captured the Arian capital that was called Artacoana. The town was rebuilt and the citadel was constructed founding the Herat of today. In 1824, Herat became independent for several years when the Afghan empire was split between the Durranis and the BarakzaisThe city was thentarget for various parties including the Persians. Two Persian attacks were repelled with British help.The British then set up a garrison (1885 AD) in defense against a Russian Invasion. The Russians never came.
Bushehr (Persian:بوشهر /Būšehr/) or Bushir, Iran (Persia). - 1737AD - 1753 AD Dutch East India Company trading post. In 1763 AD the Arabian ruler of Bushehr Sheikh Nasr Al-Madhkur granted the British East India Company the right to build a base and trading post. It was used as a base by the British Royal Navy in the late 18th century. In the 19th century, Bushehr became an important commercial port. It was occupied by British forces in 1856, during the Anglo-Persian War 1856-1857. Bushehr surrendered to the British on December 9, 1856.
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Muscat (Arabic: مسقط, Masqaṭ), Capital of Sultanate of Oman. -  1507 AD massacre by Protugese Troops. Portugese on- & off- until 1650 AD. In the 19Th Century: under British influence. Dhofar Rebellion (1962) forced the Sultan Said bin Taimur to seek the assistance of the British in quelling the uprisings from the interior.
Daho or Dohar (Arabic: الدوحة, ad-Dawḥa or ad-Dōḥa, literally: "the big tree"), Capital city of the state of Qatar. - Founded in 1825 AD as Al-Bidah. Disputed territory between Qatar, Bahrain and the Ootoman Empire. Made British Protectorate in 1916 AD
Hormuz (Persian: هرمز, also Romanized as Hormoz; also known as Qal‘eh-ye Hormoz), Iran (Persia). - In 19Th Century part of Iran.
Pnom Penh, Capital of Cambodia. - By 1866 AD,  King Norodom I returned Capital to Pnom Penh. Phnom Penh became the permanent seat of government and capital of Cambodia. Beginning in 1870 AD, the French Colonialists turned a riverside village into a city where they built hotels, schools, prisons, barracks, banks, public works offices, telegraph offices, law courts, and health services buildings. In 1872, the first glimpse of a modern city took shape when the colonial administration contracted a French contractor, Le Faucheur, to construct the first 300 concrete houses for sales and rentals to the Chinese traders.
Mandalay, Myanmar (Burma). - On 13 February 1857, King Mindon founded a new royal capital at the foot of Mandalay Hill. Completed in 1859 AD. Mandalay ceased to be the capital on 28 November 1885 when British sent King Thibaw and queen Supayalat to exile, ending the Third Anglo-Burmese War. 1885 AD - 1948 AD British Colonial Rule.
Brunei, State of Brunei Darussalam (Abode of Peace). - Visited in 1521 AD by Maggelan. Decline in the 19th century, when Brunei lost much of its territory to the White Rajahs of Sarawak who were supported by the British. British Protectorate by 1888 AD to 1984 AD.
Manila, Capital of the Phillippines. - Founded by Spanish conquistador Miguel Lopez de Legazpi in 1571 AD the Manila . Manila was made the capital of the Philippine Islands, which Spain would control for over three centuries, from 1565 AD to 1898 AD. In 189 AD Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States.
Aparri , Cagayan Province, Luzon, Philippines. - Established as one of the major ports of the Galleon Trade on May 11, 1680 AD because it is located at the mouth of the mighty Cagayan River towards the flourishing city of then Nueva Segovia. Later settled by Spanish who brought in Chinese Traders.
Batangas, Batangas Province, Luzon, Phillippines. - In 1570, Spanish generals Martin de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo explored the coast of Batangas on their way to Manila. By 1578 AD Batangas had been established a province under the name of Bonbon. Center of Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade.
City of Zamboanga (Zamboangueño Chavacano/Spanish: Ciudad de Zamboanga), Mindanao Province, Philippines. - In the year 1569 Zamboanga was chosen as the site of the Spanish settlement and garrison on La Caldera (now called Barrio Recodo).[16] The goal was to use it for the reinforcement of their troops in the country, making way for Christian settlements by converting the people and protecting the island against foreign invaders and Moro pirates.
Malacca, State of Malacca, Malaysia. -  Taken by Portugese Afonso de Albuquerque on August 24, 1511AD.Secured by 1526 AD. Taken by Dutchwho ruled Malacca from 1641 AD to 1798 AD. Ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 AD. From 1826 to 1946 crown colony of Britian ruled by British East Asia Company.
Nanchang, Capital of Jiangxi Province, P.R.C. - Visited late 16Th century by Jesuit Father Matteo Ricci on his way to Beijing. In the 1850s it suffered considerably as a result of the Taiping Rebellion (1850 AD – 1864 AD).
Chongqing (Chunking), City Province, P.R.C. - In 1891 AD Chongqing became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners.
Kunming, Capital of Yunnan Province, China (P.R.C.). - In history: Yunnan Fu (Yunnan City) position on the caravan roads through to South-East Asia, India and Tibet. Kunming was a communications center in early times and a junction of two major trading routes, one westward via Dali and Tengchong County into Myanmar, the other southward through Mengzi County to the Red River in Indochina.
"Arrow War" of 1856-60 AD. After these initial openings, a third round followed, in which all colonial nations, great and small, colluded together in forcing yet more access to the previously secluded Chinese Nation and Empire.  As a result at the end of the century, foreign powers dominated business as well as politics within especially the Chinese Coastal regions. The opening of treaty ports would last until the end of the 19Th century, with many treaty ports in service until the end of World War 2 (1945-46 AD).

First Treaty Ports (marked      on the map) :
Under the first treaty,  the 1842 AD Treaty of Nanjing that marked the end of the so-called"First Opium War" (1840 AD - 1842 AD), five initial ports were forced open. These first Ports were successively  Guangzhou (Canton) today Capital of Guangdong Province, Foochow (FuZhou) and Amoy (XiaMen) in current day Fujian Province, and the main ports of Shanghai and Ningbo in today′s Zhejiang Province. In addition Hong Kong (Island) was forced as a Land Lease in perpetuity and is therefor not counted as a treaty port.

Secondary Treaty Ports (marked      on the map) :
A "Second Opium War" known as the Arrow War (1856 AD - 1860 AD) more Treaty Ports were forced on China. In the "Treaty of Tien-tsin" which was eventually signed in Tianjin (Tientsin) in June 1858 AD and ratified by Prince Gong, eleven more Chinese ports ware designated for foreign trade and extra-territorial rights for Foreigners. The most important of these 11 harbors were Nanjing (Nanking) in Jiangsu Province, Haikou (Qiongshan) on Hainan Island, Hankou (Now part of Wuhan, Hubei Province), Newchwang (Niuzhuang) - today′s Yingkou in Liaoning Province, Yantai in Shandong Province, and the Danshui District of Taipei (Taiwan). In addition in 1860 AD the city of Tianjin itself was forced open as a Treaty Port, becoming a German Colonial possession and the participating Foreign Nations were awarded the right of "Legation" (Embassy) in the Capital Beijing.  Another small but noteworthy extra for the British was the extension of their influence over the No.1 District of Kowloon (south of present day Boundary Street) which was ceded to Britain and became part of the Crown Colony of Hong Kong. Furthermore, in a separate deal the Russians, negotiated their very own separate deal with a weakened China.  In return for a seizure of hostilities, on 28 May 1858 AD, the separate Treaty of Aigun was signed with Russia. This treaty to revised the Chinese and Russian border as determined by the Nerchinsk Treaty in 1689 AD so that Russia gained the left bank of the Amur River, pushing the border back from the Argun River. The treaty gave Russia control over a non-freezing area on the Pacific coast, where Russia founded the city of Vladivostok in 1860 AD. Vladivostok would become a major commercial harbor and naval base for the Russian Empire.

Additional Treaty Ports (marked      on the map) :
After its second humiliating defeat and the unequal treaty of Tianjin, it was clear that China was a weak or weakened nation, unable to defend itself or hold on to its territory. While foreign influence slowly infiltrated China and the Chinese rose in anger against their Government and Foreign infringement several times, various Colonial Nations fought to position themselves to carve off and own their own slice of this giant pie. Throughout the rest of the 19Th century (after 1860 AD) more treaty ports were gradually opened throughout China, altogether amounting to over 80 in total.
Although the first treaty ports were situated on the Chinese pacific coast, during the third round of expansion treaty ports could also be found inland, mainly along the main rivers of the Yangtze and the Yellow River.

In 1876 AD Wenzhou on the coast of Zhejiang Province was opened to the foreign tea trade, but no foreign settlement was ever established there.
Riyadh (pronounced [riˈjɑːdˤ]; Arabic: الرياض ar-Riyāḍ, meaning: The Gardens), Riyadh Province, Capital of Saudi Arabia. - In 1823 AD, Turki ibn Abdallah, the founder of the Second Saudi State, revived the state and chose Riyadh as the new capital. In 1865 AD Riyadh fell out of this Empire.
Mecca (English pronunciation: /ˈmækə/; Arabic: مكة, Makkah, pronounced [ˈmɛkə]), Capital of Makkah province, Saudi Arabia. - Birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, founder of the Islamic Faith. Holiest City of Islam. In 1803 the city was captured by the First Saudi State which held Mecca until 1813 AD. Muhammad Ali Pash, aViceroy of Egypt, successfully returned Mecca to Ottoman control in 1813 AD.
Damascus (Arabic: دِمَشق Dimashq, Ottoman Turkish: شام Shām), commonly known in Syria as Al Sham (Arabic: الشام Al Shām), and as the City of Jasmine (Arabic: مدينة الياسمين Madīnatu 'i Yāsmīn), Capital and 2nd largest city of Syria. - Oldest continuously inhabited city in the world. Ancient Silk Road trading City in Asia Minor. Part of the Ottoman Empire throughout the 19Th Century.
Cairo, Arabic: القاهرة al-Qāhira, Italian: Il Cairo), literally "The Vanquisher" or "The Conqueror", Capital of Egypt. - Napoleon arrived in Cairo in 1798 A. It was then a small town of 300.000 Citizens. Although invaded by French and British, recaptured by the Ottoman Empire in 1801 AD. 1805 AD - 1848 AD Ruled by Muhammad Ali Pashaas Vice-roy for the Ottomans. British invasion and occupation by 1882 AD lasting well into the 20Th Century.
Alexandria (Arabic: الإسكندرية Al Iskandariyya, Coptic: Rakotə, Greek: Αλεξάνδρεια Alexándria, Koine Greek: Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ κατ' Αἴγυπτον IPA: [ɑlɛˈksɑndɾiɑ e kɑt ˈɛʝypton] "Alexandria in Egypt", Egyptian Arabic: اسكندريه [eskendeˈrejːæ], 2nd largest City of Egypt. - Founded as a city  331 BC by Alexander the Great In the 19Th Century Siege of Alexandria (1801 and 1807)as part of the French Revolutionary Wars. In July 1882, the city came under bombardment from British naval forces and was occupiedalong with most of the rest of Egypt. From the late 19th century, Alexandria became a major centre of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centres in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, and the lucrative trade in Egyptian cotton.It remained under British control during and after World War II.
Suez (Arabic: السويس As Suwais). Suzez Governate, Egypt. - Suez Canal opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, altho remaining works were completed only in 1871 AD. The strategic Canal immediatly chhnged the world economy, international trade and strategic military affairs. The Convention of Constantinople in 1888 declared the canal a neutral zone under the protection of the British.
Beirut (Arabic: بيروت Bayrūt, French: Beyrouth), Capital of Lebanon. - Beirut's history goes back more than 5000 years. - In the 19Th Centurt part of the declining Ottoman Empire.
Antioch or historically Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη; Georgian: ანტიოქია; Armenian: Անտիոք Antiok; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem; Arabic:انطاکیه, Antakya; also Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch) Today part o Antakya, Turkey.
Mosul (Arabic: الموصل al-Mawṣil, Maṣlawī Arabic: al-Mōṣul, Syriac: ܢܝܢܘܐ Nînwe, Kurdish: Mûsil/Nînewe, Azerbaijani: Musul), Ninive or Ninawa Governate, Iraq. - The region was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1534 until the end of World War I in 1918 AD.
Baghdad (Arabic: بغداد, Baġdād), Baghdad Governorate, Iraq. - Direct Ottoman rule was reimposed by Ali Ridha Pasha in 1831 AD. From 1851 AD -1852 AD and from 1861–1867, Baghdad was governed, under the Ottoman Empire by Mehmed Namık Pasha.
Tehran, or Teheran (Persian: تهران Tehrān Tehrani, Iran. - Tehran became the capital of Iran in 1795 AD, when the Qajar king Agha Mohammad Khan was crowned in the city. It remains the capitalof Iran to this day.
Astrabad, now Gorgan (Persian: گرگان, also Romanized as Gorgān and Gūrgān; Ancient Greek: Hyrcania ; Caspian: Vergen; formerly, Astarabad (Persian: اَستِر آباد, also Romanized as Asterābād), is the capital of Golestan Province, Iran -Conquered by Mongols in the 13th century In the 19Th Century part of independent Iran. .
Isfahan (Persian: اصفهان Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan or Hispahan, Capital of Isfahan Province, Iran. -  Destroyed by Afghans in 1722 AD. Overland trading through Esfahan declined during the 18Th century possibly due to competition from maritime traders (The Dutch).
Bahrain (Arabic: البحرين Al Baḥrayn), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (Arabic: مملكة البحرين Mamlakat al Baḥrayn About this sound Arabic pronunciation (help·info), English: Kingdom of the Two Seas),  small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. - From 1521 AD to 1602 AD under Portugese Control. - In the early 19th century, Bahrain was invaded by both the Omanis and the Al Sausd. By 1820 AD, the Al Khalifa tribe came to power in Bahrain and entered a treaty relationship with Great Britain. By 1830 allegiance was switched to Persia (Iran).In 1861 AD Sheikh Mohammad in May 1861 and later with his brother Sheikh Ali that placed Bahrain under British rule and protection. In 1868, British representatives signed another agreement with the rulers of Al Khalifeh making Bahrain part of the British protectorate territories in the Persian Gulf.
Basra (Arabic: البصرة; BGN: Al Baṣrah), Capital of Basra Governorate, Iraq. - The historic location of Sumer, the home of Sinbad the Sailor, and a proposed location of the Garden of Eden. In the 19Th Century: part of the Ottoman Empire.
Kuwait, Capital City of Kuwait. - In the 14th century, the area comprising modern-day Kuwait became a part of the Islamic caliphate. It was a maritime trading city at the upper end of the Persian Gulf.  In 1756 AD, the people elected Sabah I bin Jaber as the first Emir of Kuwait after which it became a rich commercial and trading center. In 1899, Kuwait entered into a treaty with the United Kingdom that gave the British extensive control over the foreign policy of Kuwait in exchange for protection and annual subsidy.
Karachi (Urdu: کراچی; Sindhi: ڪراچي), Sindh Province, Pakistan. - Chinese Trading Port in the early 17Th Century. On 1 February 1839 AD conquered by the British East Asia Company and later annexed as part of India. When the Indian Rebellion of 1857 broke out in South Asia, the 21st Native Infantry, then stationed in Karachi, declared allegiance to rebels and joining their numbers on 10 September 1857 The city was however quickly subdued and realligned with the British Empire In 1864 AD a direct telegraph connection was laid between Karachi and London.In 1878 AD connected to British India by rail. At the beginning of the 20Th Century largest grain exporting port in South Asia.
Mirbat (Arabic: مرباط) , town in Dhofar governorate, the Sultanate of Oman. -
Berbera (Somali: Barbara, Arabic: بربرة) , seat of Berbera District in Somaliland, De Facto Independent. - In in his written work of 863 CE, Duan Chengshi, a Chinese Tang Dynasty scholar, described the slave trade, ivory trade, and ambergris trade of Bobali, which is also thought to be Berbera. During the period of Portuguese domination in the Red Sea the town was sacked in 1518 AD by Antonio de Saldanha. In 1546 AD, the Ottoman Empire occupied the northwestern regions of Somalia including Berber. In 1875AD Rulers of Ottoman Egypt stationed a Garrison that was withdrawn in 1884 AD after which it was attacked and annexed by Britain.
Aden (/ˈɑːdɛn/ ah-den, Arabic: عدن ʻAdan), Yemen. - Aden was occupied by the Portuguese between 1513 AD –1538 AD and 1547 AD -1548 AD. It was ruled by the Ottoman Empire between 1538–1547 and 1548-1645. After Ottoman rule, it was ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej, under suzerainty of the Zaidi imams of Yemen. On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping.It remained under British Control until 1967 AD.
Sana'a (Arabic: صنعاء Ṣanʿāʾ pronounced [sˤɑnʕaːʔ], Yemeni Arabic: [ˈsˤɑnʕɑ]), also spelled Sanaa, Capital of Yemen. - Listed as one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Sana'a became the capital of the Ottoman wilayah and also during the Ottoman second rule 1872 AD and 1918 AD.
Khartoum (Arabic: الخرطوم Al Kharṭūm), Capital and largest city of Sudan. - Khartoum was established  in 1821 AD by Ibrahim Pasha, the son of Egypt's ruler, Muhammad Ali Pasha, who had just incorporated Sudan into his realm. Originally, Khartoum served as outpost for the Egyptian Army but it became an important trading post and commercial center. After 1882 AD under British influence and garrison.In 1884 AD site of siege and massacre. City retaken in from Mahdists in 1898 A. In 1899, Khartoum became the capital of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
Dongola (also spelled Dunqulah or Dunqula, Arabic دنقلا, and formerly sometimes known as Al 'Urdi), Sudan. - Part of the Makuria Kingdom until 1820 AD invasion by Egyptian Forces he Nile Expedition of 1884–1885 to relieveBritish Forces led by Gordon at Khartoum passed through the area. In 1896 AD Dongola was the scene of a victory by General Herbert Kitchener over the indigenous Mahdist tribes(Makuria Kingdom) after which it became part of British Colonial possesions in North Africa.
Aswan (/ˌæsˈwɑːn /, Arabic: [ʔɑˈsˁwɑːn], Arabic: أسوان Aswān, Ancient Egyptian: Swenet, Coptic: Swān, Ancient Greek: Συήνη Syene), formerly spelled Assuan, Capital of Aswan Governate, Egypt. - Hottest and driest inhabited city in the World.
Mukalla, or Al Mukalla (Arabic: المكلا Al Mukallā), Yemen. - Capital of Quaiti State was part of the Eastern Aden Protectorate until 1967 AD. A British Resident Advisor was stationed at Al Mukallafrom xxx - 1967 AD.
Socotra (Arabic: سُقُطْرَى Suquṭra), also spelt Soqotra, ia small archipelago of four islands in the Indian Ocean. The biggest Island is named Socotra. Part of the Republic of Yemen. - Socotra appears as Dioskouridou ("of Dioscurides") in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, a 1st century AD Greek navigation aid. A local tradition holds that the inhabitants were converted to Christianity by Thomas the Apostle in AD 52. Mentioned in The Travels of Marco Polo.  1507 AD - 1511 AD attempt at Portugese Fortress and Base. The islands passed under the control of the Mahra sultans in 1511. Later, in January 1876, it became a British protectorate along with the remainder of the Mahra State of Qishn and Socotra. For the British it was an important strategic stop-over.
Maldives (Islands) (Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ, Dhivehi Raa'je), officially Republic of Maldives (Dhivehi: ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ, Dhivehi Raa'jeyge Jumhooriyya), also referred to as the Maldive Islands - Although governed as an independent Islamic sultanate from 1153 to 1968, the Maldives was a British protectorate from 1887 AD until 25 July 1965 AD.
Colombo (Sinhala: කොළඹ, pronounced [ˈkoləmbə]; Tamil: கொழும்பு), Capital of Sri Lanka. - Large harbour and its strategic position along the East-West sea trade routes.  Made the capital of the island when Sri Lanka was ceded to the British Empire in 1815 - 1948 AD.
Bombay, currently Marathi: मुंबई, Mumbaī), Capital of Maharashtra State, India. - Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538 AD Portugese), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), and Boon Bay (1690).  British gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was officially anglicised as Bombay. Charles II of England received possession of the islands in 1661 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, and leased them to the English East India Company in 1668 AD. In the 19Th Century a propsering and developing city under British Control.
Satara (Marathi:सातारा) City in the Satara District of Maharashtra state, India. - Capital of the Maratha empire in the 17th century.  After their victory in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818, the British Empire annexed most of the Maratha territory to Bombay Presidency, but restored the titular Raja Pratap Singh, and assigned to him the principality of Satara. Eventually annexed by the British Empire and added to Bombay Presidency.
Hyderabad, India. - Hyderabat State (Urdu: حیدر آباد Haydar Ābād, Telugu: హైదరాబాదు,Marathi: हैदराबाद स्टेट) was located in the south-central region of the Indian subcontinent, and was ruled, from 1724 AD until 1948 AD, by a hereditary Nizam. The capital city was Hyderabad. From 1798 AD Hyderabad was one of the princely states existing alongside British India. It had ceded to the British the control of its external relations but retained control of its internal affairs.
Kolkata, formerly Calcutta (Bengali: কলকাতা, Kolkatā, IPA: [Kolkatā]), Capital West Bengal State, India. - Kolkata served as the capital of India during the British Raj from 1858 AD until 1911 AD
Dalian & Port Arthur, Liaoning Province, China (P.R.C.). - In the 19Th Century: The settlement of Qingniwa (the walled section of Dalian) was occupied by the British in 1858 AD and only returned to the Chinese in the 1880s, and then occupied by Japan in 1895 AD during the first Sino-Japanese War In a counter-move by the Qing Empire, the entire Liaodong Peninsula including the Japanese held Port Arthur & Dalian were leased to the Japanese Arch Enemy, Russia. Nearby Port town of Lushun was named Port Arthur + new city of Dalny (Дальнийr and became the most important Russian ice-free Naval Port on the Pacific OceanIn 1905 AD it was the most important battlefield in the Russo-Japanese War (Japanese: 日露戦争; Romaji: Nichi-Ro Sensō; Russian: Русско-японская война Russko-yaponskaya voyna; simplified Chinese: 日俄战争; traditional Chinese: 日俄戰爭; pinyin: Rì'é Zhànzhēng, 8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905).
Seoul (서울), Capital of South Korea (R.O.K.) - Since the beginning of the Joseon Dynasty in 1394 AD Capital City of the secluded Korean Kingdom. Opened to foreign influences in the last 10 years of the 19Th Century. In 1904 AD after Russian moves in Manchuria along the Yalu and Tumen border rivers the Russo-Japanese War broke out. During hostilities, Japanese Troops landed around Incheon and subsequently occupied Seoul and the rest of Korea. When Imperial Japan annexed Korea, making Seoul its colonial capital. While under colonial rule (1910–1945), the city was called Gyeongseong (경성; 京城; Japanese: Keijō).
Busan (부산釜山) also Pusan, South Korea (R.O.K.) - From the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Korean government designated Busan as a trading port with the Japanese and allowed their settlement. The Japanese settlement, though relocated into Choryang later, continued to exist until Korea was exposed to modern diplomacy in 1876 AD. In 1876 AD Busan became the first international port in Korea. During the Japanese rule (1904 AD - 1945 AD), Busan (known in Japanese also as Busan) developed into a hub trading port with Japan.
Pyongyang, Capital of North Korea (D.P.R.K.) - In the 19Th Century: In 1890, the city had 40,000 inhabitants. In 1896 AD provincial capital of South Pyeongan Province. Pyongyang was the site of an important battle during the First Sino-Japanese War (1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) which laid most of city waste.
Dali, Yunnan Province, P.R.C.) -
Liao Kai, Republic of Vietnam -  In the 19Th Century: Liao Kai. Red River Valley Tribal Country, French annexed Indo-China.
Guangzhou (广州) formerly Canton, Guangdong Province, China (P.R.C.) - Guangzhou had emerged in the 18Th century as one of the world's great trading ports under the Thirteen Factories. After the Portugese were the first westerners to gain trading rights several other nations were allowed to join the exclusive trade. No Foreigners were allowed outside the trading settlement until the 1839 AD - 1842 AD (1s) Opium War. British captured Canton on March 18, 1841AD. Guangzhou was forced open to foreign trade under British regulations in 1842 AD and was one of the first 5 Treaty Ports. In the ensuing period it became one of the 3 most important trading cities in the world.
Shanghai City Province, P.R.C. - 1842 Forced International Treaty Port
Haikou, Capital of Hainan Dao Province, China (P.R.C.). - Then named Qiongshan, Forced as a Treaty Port under Treaty of Nanking (1858 AD).
Yingkou formerly Nuizhuang, Liaoning Province, China (P.R.C.). - In the 19Th Century: Niu-Chuan or Niuzhuang, Forced as a Treaty Port under Treaty of Nanking (1858 AD).
Wuhan - composed of 3 cities among which Hankou, Capital of Hubei Province, China (P.R.C.) - Forced as a Treaty Port under Treaty of Tianjin (1858 AD).
Taipei - District of Danshui, Capital of Taiwan, Republic of China - Danshui District (of what today is Taipei) Forced as a Treaty Port under Treaty of Nanking (1858 AD).
Nanjing, Capital of Jiangsu Province
Shimodo, Empire of Japan
Zhangjiakou aka Kalgan (Mongolian: Heavens Gate), Hebei Province, China (P.R.C.) - Location of Istrategic Gate in Great Wall of China leading into (Inner) Mongolia.
Taiyuan, Capital of Shanxi Province, China (P.R.C.) -
Kaifeng, Henan Province, China (P.R.C.) -
Qingdao, Shandong Province - in 19Th Centruy: Conceded to Germany in 1898 AD, German Colony known as Kiautschou Bay concession. Taken by Japan in 1914 AD as part of Hositilities in World War I. Awarded to Japan in 1918 AD.
Tianjin, Tianjin City Province, China (P.R.C.) - in 19Th Centrury: Treaty Port in 1860 AD, as part of the 1858 AD Tianjin Treaty.
Blagoveshchensk (Russian: Благове́щенск) , Administrative center of Amur Oblast, Russia. - Founded in 1858 AD after the Treaty of Aigun (Blagoveshchensk. In 1858 AD Aigun was a nomadic settlement and market post of the Manchu.
Nerchinsk (Russian: Не́рчинск), Town of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia. - Founded around 1654 AD as a Fortress by Cossacks. In 1689 AD, the Treaty of Nerchinsk was signed between Russia and China, which stopped the farther advance of the Russians into the basin of the Amur for two centuries. In 1812 Nerchinsk was transferred from the banks of the Shilka to its present site, on account of the flood. Not connected to Trans-Siberian Railway.
Albasin, town of Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia. - Likely Amazar between Pokrovka (Siberia) and Mohexiang (Heilongjiang), border town of the Amur River. Albasins are a ethnic group of todays Siberia. No additional information available.
Designates British Strongpoint, Colonial City or Territory.
Yinkou formerly Nuizhuang, Liaoning Province, China (P.R.C.). - In the 19Th Century: Niu-Chuan or Niuzhuang, Forced as a Treaty Port under Treaty of Nanking (1858 AD).
Guangzhou (广州) formerly Canton, Guangdong Province, China (P.R.C.) - Guangzhou had emerged in the 18Th century as one of the world's great trading ports under the Thirteen Factories. After the Portugese were the first westerners to gain trading rights several other nations were allowed to join the exclusive trade. No Foreigners were allowed outside the trading settlement until the 1839 AD - 1842 AD (1s) Opium War. British captured Canton on March 18, 1841AD. Guangzhou was forced open to foreign trade under British regulations in 1842 AD and was one of the first 5 Treaty Ports. In the ensuing period it became one of the 3 most important trading cities in the world.
1842 AD Nanking Treaty Ports
1858/60 AD Tianjin Treaty Ports
Qingdao, Shandong Province - in 19Th Centruy: Conceded to Germany in 1898 AD, German Colony known as Kiautschou Bay concession. Taken by Japan in 1914 AD as part of Hositilities in World War I. Awarded to Japan in 1918 AD.
18595/98 AD etc Tertiary Treaty Ports
Penang (formerly Georgetown), Penang Region, Malaysia. - In 1796 Penang was made a penal settlement when 700 convicts were transferred thither from the Andaman Islands. In 1805 AD Penang was made a separate presidency (ranking with Bombay and Madras); and when in 1826 Singapore and Malacca were incorporated with it, Penang continued to be the seat of government of the Straits Settlements, an extension of the British Raj. In 1829 Penang was reduced from the rank of a presidency, and eight years later the fast-growing town of Singapore was made the capital of the Settlements. In 1867 AD the Straits Settlements were created a Crown colony under direct British rule, in which Penang was included. By 1900 AD enang had a large numbe of Chinse migrant workers.
Port Blair, Andaman Islands (Bengali: আন্দামান দ্বীপপুঞ্জ, Hindi: अण्डमान द्वीप समूह, Tamil: அந்தமான் தீவுகள், Telugu: అండమాన్ దీవులు), Andaman and Nicobar Islands special territory of India. - The name "Andaman" first appears in the work of Arab geographers of the ninth century (Soleyman in 851),[citation needed] though it is uncertain whether ancient geographers like Ptolemy also knew of the Andamans but referred to them by a different name .Marco Polo briefly mentions the Andamans (calling them by the name "Angamanain"), though it is uncertain whether he visited the islands, or whether he met the natives if he did, as he describes them as having heads like dogs The Islands were beliegered by British throughout the 17Th and 18 Century. In 1789 A D the government of Bengal established a naval base and penal colony on Chatham Island in the southeast bay of Great Andaman.In May 1796 AD the Colony almost died out from disease and starvation.   In the 19h Century: Indian Rebellion of 1857 AD and unrest therefater provided the British with plenty of pisoners. A new Colony was established named Port Blair. Later a 2nd penal colony was added.
 Nicobar Islands (Hindi: निकोबार द्वीप समूह, [nɪkoːˈbaːr ˈd̪ʋiːp səˈmuːɦ], Bengali: নিকোবর দ্বীপপুঞ্জ, Tamil: நக்காவரம்) , Andaman and Nicobar Islands special territory of India. - TSince the beginning of the 1700s  attempts at Colonization by uropean Nations. Disease prevented succesful settlements until 1778  AD and 1783  AD,  Austria attempted to establish a colony on the islands on the mistaken assumption that Denmark had abandoned its claims to the islands. Danish involvement ended formally on 16 October 1868 when the Danish rights to the Nicobar Islands were sold to Britain. in 1869 AD The Nicobar slands were made part of British India.
Japanese City
Hakodate, Empire of Japan
Nagasaki, Empire of Japan
Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, P.R.C.) - In 1860 when Taiping soldiers advanced on and captured the city. In November 1863 AD the Ever Victorious Army of Charles Gordon recaptured the city from the Taiping forces for the Qing Crown. As part of The horse-road, which was a by-product of the 1895 AD Shimonoseki Peace Treaty that ended hostilities with Japan, Suzhou became a Treaty Port in the year 1895 AD.
Hangzhou, Capital of Zhejiang Province, China (P.R.C.) - Ancient Silk Trading City. in 1895 AD under Treaty of Shimonoseki opened as Treaty Port to Japan.
Yingzhou, Hubei Province, China (P.R.C.) - In 19Th Century known as Shashi (沙市) In 1895 AD under Treaty of Shimonoseki opened as Treaty Port to Japan.
Nakhon Ratchasima (Thai: นครราชสีมา, pronounced [náʔkʰɔːn râːt.tɕʰa.sǐː.maː]) , city and capital of the Nakhon Ratchasima Province and Nakhon Ratchasima district, Thailand. - In the 19Th Century known as Khorat or Korat. In 1782 AD Korat became a Royal Thai strategic stronghold on the northeastern frontier supervising Lao and Khmer tributary states. At some time after 1832 AD Korat old, walled towt was designed and built by a French engineer. The French-based design is reflected in the moat system that surrounds the innermost portion of the city.
Enter the Territory of Tibet ...
Ceded by China to Russia in 1858 AD Treaty of Aigun (simplified Chinese: 瑷珲条约) as an indirect result of Chinas loss of the second Opium War (1856 AD - 1860 AD).
Ceded by China to Russia in 1860 AD Treaty of Beijing.
Vladivostok (Russian: Владивосто́к), Capital of Primorsky Krai, Russia - Founded as Naval Outpost 1858 AD, officially: 1860 AD coinciding with the ceding of the Primorsky Region and Sakhalin Island in the 1860 AD Treaty of Beijing. ; In 1916 A Bridge across the Amur allowed the passing of the Trans-Siberian Railway connecting from Chabarovsk to Vladivostok.
Wŏnsan (원산), Capital of Kangwŏn Province,  North Korea (D.P.R.K.) - In the 19Th Century: It opened as trade port in 1880 AD for trade with Japan. In the late 19 th century known as the Port Lazarev (Lazaref). In 1914 the Pyongwon and Kyongwon Railway Lines were opened, connecting the city to Pyongyang and Seoul (then known as Kyongsong). Thus, the city gradually developed into the eastern product distribution center. Under the Japanese occupation, the city was heavily industrialized and served as an import point in the distribution of trade between Korea and mainland Japan.
Ussuriysk (Russian: Уссури́йск) , city in Primorsky Krai, Russia - In 1866 AD, the settlement of Nikolskoye (Никольское) was founded on the area of today's Ussuriysk, named after Tsar Nicholas I. In 1898 it became a station and town along the Trans-Siberian Railway connecting to the Naval Port of Vladivostok.
Suzhou also Jiuquan, Gansu Province, China (P.R.C). - In history most western city of Ming Dynasty (1368 AD - 1644 AD) China. Western most point of Great Wall of China. Reached by Bento de Góis who died there on 11 April 1607AD.
Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R.C. -  In 1876 Wenzhou was opened to the foreign tea trade, but no foreign settlement was ever established there. Between 1937 and 1942, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Wenzhou achieved importance as one of the few ports still under Chinese control.Visited late 16Th century by Jesuit Father Matteo Ricci on his way to Beijing. In the 1850s it suffered considerably as a result of the Taiping Rebellion (1850 AD – 1864 AD).
Tertiary Treaty Ports (marked      on the map) :
The last round of the creation of Treaty Ports came after the Chinese defeat in the (1st) Sino-Japanese War and the 1895 AD Shimonoseki Treaty (MaguanTreaty), and a few years later in 1898 AD, after China was defeated by Japan in a short and overwhelming conflict, although strictly speaking a few years previously in 1891 AD Chunking (Chongqing) became the first inland port in China to be opened to Foreigners and International Trade, except for Japanese. Under the Shimonoseki Treaty (Treaty of Maguan (simplified Chinese: 马关条约)) China opened Chashih (沙市) - todays Yingzhou in Hubei Province, Chungking, Suzhou and Hangzhou to Japan.
While Japan took possession of the northern half of Korea previously under Chinese protection and penetrated into what today is Liaoning Province, Russia, Japan and the United States of America made use of the moment by dividing up Manchuria (North-East China) into their various spheres of influence. As a result the cities of Harbin, Manzhouli (Inner-Mongolia AR) and Aihun (Arhun) were designated as Treaty Ports in 1898 AD and occupied by various military detachments. Where Harbin became an international city ruled in a shared form by Germany, Russia, Japan and the United States of America, the then towns of Manzhouli and the even more remote Aihun town on the Amur river fell exclusively under Russian influence and Governance. In addition, Lushunkou -what was to become known as Port Arthur at the tip of the Liaodong Peninsula, was taken by Japanese troops in 1894 AD, but through International manipulations ended up in the hands of the Russians who immediately built it into their main Naval Base.
Further to the South on the Shandong Peninsula, Germany managed to take away the Kiautschou Bay concession, which then became the German colonial city of Qingdao. (Qingdao was later taken by Japan in 1914 A as part of World War 1).
Among the last ports to be claimed and opened were various inland ports along the Yangtze River.  For instance, the City of Changsha, Capital of Hunan Province was forced open by Japan under the Treaty of Shanghai in 1903 AD.
Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, P.R.C. -  In 1876 Wenzhou was opened to the foreign tea trade, but no foreign settlement was ever established there. Between 1937 and 1942, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, Wenzhou achieved importance as one of the few ports still under Chinese control.Visited late 16Th century by Jesuit Father Matteo Ricci on his way to Beijing. In the 1850s it suffered considerably as a result of the Taiping Rebellion (1850 AD – 1864 AD).
Yantai (Chinese: 烟台; pinyin: Yāntái) i,prefecture-level city in Shandong Province, China (P.R.C). - Previously: Chifu or Chefoo - Under the Treaty of Tianjin and Dengzhou was renamed fYantai. Yantai opened its harbor for business in May 1861 AD, but was not officially designated an international trading port until later that year on August 22. This decree was accompanied by the construction of the Donghai Pass (東海關). 17 nations, including Britain, established embassies in Yantai. The Chefoo Convention was signed there in 1876 AD.
Meng-Tze also Honghe Hani and Yi Autonomous Prefecture (simplified Chinese: 红河哈尼族彝族自治州; traditional Chinese: 紅河哈尼族彝族自治州; pinyin: Hónghé Hānízú Yízú Zìzhìzhōu), autonomous prefecture of Yunnan Province, China (P.R.C.). Its name is derived from the Honghe river (Red river) and the two major ethnic minority groups who live there: the Yi and the Hani. Honghe has an area of 32,929 km². The capital of the prefecture is Mengzi., P.R.C.
Hanoi, Republic of Vietnam -  In the 19Th Century: Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. As Hanoï, after 1887 AD it became the capital of French annexed Indo-China.
Chittagong (Bengali: চট্টগ্রাম, Chôţţogram)), Bangladesh. - In the 19Th Century: occupied by Burmese troops shortly in First Anglo-Burmese War in 1824 AD, shortly after which it fell to British Troops and became part of British ruled India.
Herāt (Persian / Pashto: هرات) , Capital of Herat province in Afghanistan. - In 1824, Herat became independent for several years when the Afghan empire was split between the Durranis and the Barakzais. Qajars of Persia tried to take city from the Durranis in 1852 and again in 1856; both times the British helped to repel the Persians, the second time through the Anglo-Persian War. The city fell to Dost Mohammad Khan of the Barakzai dynasty in 1863. Most of the Musallah complex in Herat was cleared in 1885 by the British army to get a good line of sight for their artillery against Russian invaders who never came. This was but one small sidetrack in the Great Game, a century-long conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire in 19th century.
Gilgit (Urdu/Burushaski: گلگت, Hindi: गिलगित), Capital city of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. - In 1877, in order to guard against the advance of Russia, the British Government, acting as the suzerain power of Kashmir, established the Gilgit Agency. The Agency was re-established under control of the British Resident in Jammu and Kashmir. It comprised the Gilgit Wazarat; the State of Hunza and Nagar; the Punial Jagir; the Governorships of Yasin, Kuh-Ghizr and Ishkoman, and Chilas. Only in 1935 AD did Gilgit become part of British India.
Peshawar (Urdu: پشاور, Pashto: پېښور Pekhawar/Peshawar, Hindko: پِشور Pishor), Capital of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and the administrative centre (and the central business hub) for the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. - In 1812, Peshawar was a suzerainty of Afghanistan, but contested by the Sikh Empire. The arrival of a party led by British explorer and former agent of the East India Company, William Moorcroft was seen as an advantage, both in dealings with Kabul and in protection against the Sikhs of Lahore. He was even offered the governorship of Peshawar and invited to offer the area's allegiance to the East India Company, all of which he declined. In 1834 ADannexed by the Sikh Empire. The British occupied Peshawar in 1849 AD after the crumbling of Sikh in the aftermath of the 2nd Anglo-Sikh War.
Yarkand (or Yarkant), Town and County in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China (P.R.C.) - At the end of the 16th century Yarkant was incorporated into the khanate of Kashgar and became its capital. The Jesuit Benedict Göez, who was seeking a route from the Mughal Empire to Cathay (which, according to his superiors, may or may not have been the same place as China), arrived to Yarkant with a caravan from Kabul in late 1603. He remained there for about a year, making a short trip to Khotan during that time. The Qing dynasty of China (1644 AD - 1911 AD) gained control of the region in the middle of the 18th century.In the 19Th Century the wider regions saw several islamic uprisings against Chinese Domination. They were all doomed.
Hotan (Uyghur: خوتەن, ULY: Xoten, UPNY: Hotǝn?), or Hetian (Chinese: 和田; pinyin: Hétián, formerly: simplified Chinese: 和阗; traditional Chinese: 和闐; pinyin: Hétián), also spelled Khotan, Khotan Prefecture, Xinjiang-Uighur Autonomous Region, China (P.R.C.). - In history the lost Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan 1st discovered by Han envoys on their earliest explorations of what later became the Silk Road. Conquered by Qing Dynasty China in battles around 1750 AD. The town suffered severely during the Dungan revolt against the Qing Dynasty in 1864-1875, and again a few years later when Yaqub Beg of Kashgar declared the Independent Republic of East Turkestan.
Srinagar (Kashmiri: سری نگر; Urdu: شرینگر; Dogri: श्रीनगर), Jammu & Kashmir State, India. - In 1846, the Treaty of Lahore was signed between the Sikh rulers and the British in Lahore. The treaty, inter alia, provided British de-facto suzerainty over the Kashmir Valley, and installed Gulab Singh as an independent and sovereign ruler of the region. Srinagar became part of his kingdom and remained until 1947 as one of the several princely states in British India. There was however no British Garrison.
Mashhad (Persian: مشهد Mashhad, Arabic: مشهد Mašhad, English: The Place of Martyrdom), Iran. - In the 17Th Century disputed between Uzbeks and Persians. Part of Persia in 18Th and 19Th Century. Bombed by Russian Forces in 1912 AD.
Merv (Turkmen: Merw, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. Chinese: 木鹿, Mulu), formerly Achaemenid Satrapy of Margiana, and later Alexandria and Antiochia in Margiana (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Μαργιανής). Ruined ancient city near Mary in Uzbekistan. -Visited and renamed Alexandria by Alexander the Great in 3rd Century BC. Major trading city in Silk Road history, especially in the 12Th Century.- In the 19Th Century: In 1794 AD the then Persian City of Merv was razed to the ground by Uzbeks from Bucharra.When Sir Alexander Burnes traversed the country in 1832, Merv belonged to the Khanate of Khiva.Russians occupied the tow in 1883 ADleading to the Panjdeh Incident of the Great Game between the British Empire and Imperial Russia.
Samarkand (Uzbek: Samarqand; Tajik: Самарқанд; Persian: سمرقند; from Sogdian: "Stone Fort" or "Rock Town"), Samarqand Province, Uzbekistan. - Founded in the 8Th Century BC. Among the oldest inhabited cities in the world. - From 1599 to 1756, Samarkand was ruled by the Ashtarkhanid dynasty of Bukhara.From 1756 to 1868, Samarkand was ruled by the Manghyt emirs of Bukhara.In 1868 AD the Russians arrived anda 500 men army took over the City. In 1886 the city became the capital of the newly formed Samarkand Oblast of Russian Turkestan and grew in importance still further when the Trans-Caspian railway reached the city in 1888 AD.
Kokand (Uzbek: Qo‘qon / Қўқон; Tajik: Хӯқанд; Persian: خوقند; Chagatai: خوقند; Russian: Коканд), Fergana Province, Uzbekistan. - Present Khokand city began as a fort in 1732 AD on the site of another older fortress called Eski-Kurgan. In 1740 AD, it became the capital of an Uzbek kingdom, the Khanate of Kokand. Russian imperial forces under Mikhail Skobelev captured the city in 1883 AD which then became part of Russian Turkistan.
Shymkent (Kazakh: Шымкент / Şımkent), formerly known as Chimkent (Russian: Чимкент, until 1993), Capital city of South Kazakhstan Province, Kazakhstan. - Once part of the Khanate of Kokand, it became part of the Emirate of Bukhara in 1810 and was then annexed by the Russian Empire in 1864. Major station of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway, a side branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway.
Ashgabat (Turkmen: Aşgabat, Persian: عشق آباد, Russian: Ашхабад, also Ashkhabad in transliteration from Russian (literally, Persian meaning: "City of Love"), Capital of Turkmenistan. - In 1869 AD, Russian soldiers built a fortress on a hill near the village, and this added security soon attracted merchants and craftsmen to the area. Ashgabat remained a part of Persia until 1881, when it was ceded to Tsarist Russia under the terms of Akhal Treaty. Russia chose to develop Ashgabat as a regional center due to its proximity to the border of British-influenced Persia.
Geok Tepe, Gökdepe or Gokdepe, is a former fortress of the Turkmens, in Turkmenistan, in the oasis of Ahal, on the Transcaspian railway, 28 miles north-west of Ashgabat - In December 1880, Geok Tepe (Siege of Geoktepe) was attacked by 6,000 Russians under General Mikhail Skobelev against 25,000 defenders. The siege of Geok Tepe lasted twenty-three days, after which the city was taken by storm in January 1881 AD .Geok Tepe (Gokdepe Mosque) was built to commemorate the defeat and is noted for its mint-turquoise blue coloured roof and white marble structure.
Türkmenbaşy (also spelled Turkmenbashi), formerly known as Krasnovodsk (Russian: Красноводск) and, more properly, Kyzyl-Su, Port city in Balkan Province, Turkmenistan. - In 1717, Russian Prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky landed and established a secret fortified settlement on this location, where the dry bed of a former mouth of the Amu-Darya River once emptied into the Caspian Sea. It was however unused for a 150 years until 1869AD. In 1869 AD a new Fortress was built, fort Krasnovodsk (Красноводск), which Krasnovodsk was Imperial Russia's base of operations against Khiva and Bukhara, and the nomadic Turkmen tribes.
Baku (Azerbaijani: Bakı), sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, Capital City of Azerbaidjan. - In 1540 AD Baku was again captured by the Safavid troops. In 1604 AD the Baku fortress was destroyed by Safavid shah Abbas I.  On 26 June 1723, after a lasting siege using cannons, Baku surrendered to the Russians. In 1798 AD  Although in 1795, Baku was invaded by Agha Muhammad Khan Qajar to defend against tsarist Russia's ambitions to subjugate the South Caucasus, the city was quickly recapture.The City remained hotly disputed until in 1813 AD, Russia signed the Treaty of Gulistan with Persia, which provided for the cession of Baku and most of the Caucasus from Iran and their annexation by Russia. The first oil well was mechanically drilled in the Bibi-Heybat suburb of Baku in 1846 AD. Large-scale oil exploration started in 1872 AD.
Astrakhan (Russian: А́страхань; Kazakh: Хажы-Тархан; Tatar: Әстерхан, Ästerxan; Persian: حاجیترخان , Haji-Tarkhan, whence Hashtarkhan, then Astrakhan), administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast, Russia. - Conquered by Russia in 1556 AD. Between 1600 AD and 1700 AD the city was developed as a Russian gate to the Orient. Many merchants from Armenia, Persia, India and Khiva settled in the town, giving it a multinational and variegated characterIn 1717 AD Astrakhan served as a base for the first Russian venture into Central Asia under Prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky (Russian: Александр Бекович-Черкасский).
Saratov (Russian: Сара́тов), Saratov Oblast, Russia. - Originally founded as a Fortress Town along the Volga River, set up to control the conquered Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan. By the 1800s, Saratov had grown to be an important shipping port on the Volga.
Stavropol (Russian: Ста́врополь), Administrative center of Stavropol Krai, Russia.- Founded in 1777 AD as a Military Camp and Base after the Russo-Turkish War of 1768 AD – 1774 AD. City in 1785 AD. Stavropol's strategic location aided in the Russian Empire's conquest of the Caucasus. By the early 19th century the city grew into a busy trade center of the Northern Caucasus
Odessa or Odesa (Ukrainian: Одеса; Russian: Одесса), Administrative Capital of Odessa Oblast (province), Ukraine. - The city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Empress Catherine the Great in 1794. From 1819 to 1858 Odessa was a free port. In the 19th century it was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw.
Kharkiv (Ukrainian: Харків, pronounced [ˈxɑrkiw]; or Kharkov (Russian: Харьков), Kharkov Oblast, Ukraine. - Founded as City in 1654 AD. Kharkiv became the centre of the Sloboda cossack legion. The city had a fortress with underground passageways.
Orsk (Russian: Орск), Orenburg Oblast, Russia. - Founded in 1735 AD. At its foundation it marked a southeastern projection of European Russia toward the steppes of Central Asia. It housed an exchange post and Russian customs. In 1861, the fortress was decommissioned and became a station of the Orenburg Cossack army.
Changchun Fu
Jilin City, Jilin Province, China (P.R.C.) - Also known as Kirin.
Arkhangelsk (Russian: Архангельск, IPA: [ɐrˈxanɡʲɪlʲsk]), formerly known as Archangel in English, Administrative Capital of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.- The area where Arkhangelsk is situated was known to the Vikings as Bjarmaland.In the 12th century, the Novgorodians established the Archangel Michael Monastery in the estuary of the Northern Dvina. However, in 1478 AD the area was taken over by Ivan III (of the Russians) and passed to Muscovy with the rest of Novgorod Republic. Trade privileges were officially granted to English merchants in 1555 AD. Scottish and English merchants also traded in the 16th century; however, by the 17th century it was mainly the Dutch that sailed to the White Sea area. In 1693 AD, Tsar Peter I (The Great) ordered the creation of a state shipyard in Arkhangels. The Port was however of limited use due to the yearly 5 month long period of icing. Arkhangelsk declined in the 18th century as the Baltic trade became ever more important. Arkhangelsk's economy revived at the end of the 19th century when a railway to Moscow was completed and timber became a major export.
Dudinskoe, Coordinates: 57°47'59"N 39°48'52"E - 17 Kilomters from center of  Yaroslavl (Russian: Яросла́вль), Administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia. - Capital of an independent Principality of Yaroslavl from 1218, it was incorporated into Muscovy in 1463 AD starting its Russian Period. In the 17th century it was Russia's second largest city, and for a time (during the Polish occupation of Moscow in 1612 AD), the country's de facto capital.
Shigansk, Zhiganskiy rayon, Jakoetië, Russia. (Latitude: 66° 46' 11 N, Longitude: 123° 22' 16 E). - Small Town and Hydro-meteorological station.
Beryozovo (Russian: Берёзово; Mansi: Khaaljpus) , settlement and Administrative center of Beryozovsky District of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, Russia. - Beryozovo was founded in 1593 on the Northern Sosva route across the Ural Mountains to the fur-rich Mangazeya region. It was besieged by the Ostyaks in 1592, 1697, and 1608. It grew into a town of Beryozov (Берёзов) in Tobolsk Governorate. In the mid-18th century, gold was discovered at Beryozovo — Siberia's first important gold mine. Soon much more Gold was discovred elsewhere and the town fell into oblivion until oil was discored in the 1960s AD.
Kirov (Russian: Ки́ров), formerly known as Vyatka and Khlynov, Administrative Capital of Kirov Oblast, Russia. - The fort of Khlynov, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, was founded by Novgorodian entrepreneurs in 1181. It was first mentioned as a town in documents from 1374. Khlynov was incorporated into Muscovy in 1489 AD. In 1781 Catherine the Great renamed Khlynov to Vyatka and made it the centre of a separate guberniya. By the end of the 19th century, it was an important station on the Trans-Siberian railway.
Tomsk (Russian: Томск), Administrative center of Tomsk Oblast, Russia. - Tomsk was etablsihed on Decree of the Tzar Boris Gudinov in the year 1604 AD, when a Fortress was established for a Garrison of 200 Cossacks.  In 1804 AD the City was chosen as the administrative Capital of a Governate which included Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, Krasnoyarsk and eastern Kazakhstan. The discovery of gold in 1830 brought further development to Tomsk in the 19th century. However, when the Trans-Siberian Railway bypassed the city in favor of the village of Novonikolayevsk (now Novosibirsk), development began to move south to connect with the railway. In time, Novosibirsk would surpass Tomsk in importance. In the 19Th Century the City was known as the Athens of the East due to to its abundance in educational Institutes.
Station Trans-Siberian Railway
o/t Trans-Siberian Railway
Samara (Russian: Сама́ра), called Kuybyshev (Ку́йбышев) from 1935 to 1990 AD, Federal Volga District, Russia. -  Officially the town started with a fortress 1586 at the confluence of the Volga and Samara Rivers. This fortress was a frontier post protecting the then easternmost boundaries of Russia from forays of nomads. A local customs office was established in 1600 AD.  On January 1, 1851 AD Samara became the center of the Province of Samara with an estimated population of 20,000. This gave a stimulus to the development of the economic, political and cultural life of the community.
Kazan (Russian: Каза́нь; Tatar Cyrillic: Казан, Latin: Qazan), Capital of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. -  In the 13Th Century after the Mongols devastated the Bolğar and Bilär areas, migrants resettled Kazan. Kazan became a center of a duchy which was a dependency of the Golden Horde.  In 1438, after the destruction of the Golden Horde, Kazan became the capital of the powerful Khanate of Kazan. As a result of the Siege of Kazan (1552 AD) Russia under Ivan the Terrible conquered the city and established a brutal regime. Tthe majority of the population was massacred. The remainder were expelled or forcibly Christianized. In the beginning of the 19th century Kazan State University and printing press were founded by Alexander I. It became an important center for Oriental Studies in Russia. The Qur'an was first printed in Kazan in 1801 AD.
Hammerfest, Finnmark county, Norway. - This location was an important fishing and Arctic hunting settlement for a long time before it was given market town rights by royal decree of Christian VII of Denmark–Norway in 1789 AD. After a British Raid in 1809 AD Hammerfest became a garrison town with some regular troops and much improved and expanded fortifications. A small flotilla of cannon-armed rowing boats also operated out of Hammerfest for the remainder of the Napoleonic Wars.
Tromsø (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈtrʊmsø],) Troms county, Norway. - The area was first settled at the end of the ice age. The Norse culture arrived quite early on the scene - sometime in the early Medieval Age. In the 19th century, Tromsø was known as the "Paris of the North", probably because people in Tromsø appeared as far more civilized than expected to foreign tourists. Arctic hunting, from Novaya Zemlya to Canada, started up around 1820. By 1850, Tromsø was the major center of Arctic hunting, overtaking the former center of Hammerfest, and the city was trading from Arkhangelsk to Bordeaux. By the end of the 19th century, Tromsø had become a major Arctic trade center from which many Arctic expeditions originated. Explorers like Roald Amundsen, Umberto Nobile and Fridtjof Nansen made use of the know-how in Tromsø on the conditions in the Arctic, and often recruited their crew in the city.
Narvik, Nordland county, Norway. -  The history of modern Narvik begins in the 1870s, when the Swedish government began to understand the potential of the iron ore mines in Kiruna, Sweden.  Narvik port is ice-free thanks to the warm Gulf Stream and served as transport hub for the Kiruna and Gällivare iron mines. Officially founded as a Town in 1902 AD.
Trondheim, Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. - After the Treaty of Roskilde on 26 February 1658, Trondheim and the rest of Trøndelag, became Swedish territory for a brief period, but the area was reconquered after 10 months. The conflict was finally settled by the Treaty of Copenhagen on 27 May 1660 AD making Trondheim part of Norway.
Amsterdam, North Holland Province, The Netherlands. - The 17th century is considered Amsterdam's Golden Age, during which it became the wealthiest city in the world. Ships sailed from Amsterdam to the Baltic Sea, North America, and Africa, as well as present-day Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, and Brazil, forming the basis of a worldwide trading network. Amsterdam's merchants had the largest share in both the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company. These companies acquired overseas possessions that later became Dutch colonies. Amsterdam was Europe's most important point for the shipment of goods and was the leading Financial Centre of the world.] In 1602, the Amsterdam office of the Dutch East India Company became the world's first stock exchange by trading in its own shares.In the 19Th Century at a lowpoint, absorbed into Napoleontic France.
Groningen, Capital of Groningen Province, The Netherlands. - The oldest document referring to Groningen's existence dates from 1040 AD. In 1614 AD, the University of Groningen was founded.
Myitkyina, Capital city of Kachin State in Myanmar (Burma). - Myitkyina has been a important trading town between China and Burma since ancient times.Blamindin Bridge at MyitkyinaAmerican Baptist missionary George J. Geis and his wife arrived in Myitkyina in the late 1890s and in 1900 requested permission to build a misison there. At the time it was nothing more than a jungle settlement along the river.
Jaipur (Rajasthani: जैपर Hindi: जयपुर)), Capital of Rajahstan State, India. - In the 19th century under British Rule the city grew rapidly and became prosperous; by 1900 AD it had a population of 160,000. The city's wide boulevards were paved and lit with gas. The city had several hospitals. Its chief industries were in metals and marble, fostered by a school of art founded in 1868. There were three collges in the City.
Nagpur (Marathi: नागपूर ; Hindi: नागपुर)), Capital of Maharashtra State, India. -  In 1803 AD Raghoji II jthe Ruler of Nagpur and regions joined the Peshwas against the British in the 2nd Anglo-Maratha War. The British however won the war, and Raghoji was forced to cede  the coastal enclaves of Cuttack, Sambalpur, and part of Berar. After Raghoji II's death in 1816, his son Parsaji was murdered by Mudhoji II. Despite the fact that he had entered into a treaty with the British in the same year, Mudhoji joined the Peshwa in the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817 against the British, but was forced to cede the rest of Berar to the Nizam of Hyderabad, and parts of Saugor and Damoh, Mandla, Betul, Seoni and the Narmada valley to the British after suffering a defeat at Sitabuldi in modern-day Nagpur city. The Sitabuldi fort was the site of a fierce battle between the British and the Bhonsle of Nagpur in 1817. The battle was a turning point as it laid the foundations of the downfall of the Bhonsles and paved the way for the British acquisition of Nagpur city. Nagpur was finally annexed by Britain in 1854 AD.
Kota (Rajasthani: कोटा) also Kotah, City in Rajahstan, India. -
Bikaner (Rajasthani: बिकाणो ),  City in Rajahstan State, India. -  Prior to the mid 15th century, the region that is now Bikaner was a barren wilderness called Jangladesh.   The City was foundded in 1488 AD   .   Through a turbulent history under local Rulers, the Rajahs (title) the City and State grew properous.  Dealing smartly with the British Invaders, Rajahstan and the  City of Bikaner remained in name Independentt . Rulers of Rajahstan represented India in important International Negotatiations.
Girishk, village and Fortress in Helamnd Province, Afghanistan. - Girishk was occupied by the British during the First Afghan War, and a small garrison of sepoys under a native officer successfully withstood a siege of nine months by an overwhelming Afghan force. Girishk was an extremely strategic point in the contest between Britain and Russia for control and dominance over south Afghanistan and access to Persia (Iran).
Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Lezgian: Кьвевар; Avar: Дербенд; Lak: Чурул, Churul; Persian: دربند; Judæo-Tat: דארבּאנד/Дэрбэнд/Dərbənd), Republic of Dagestan, Russia. - In the 14th century Derbent was occupied by Tamerlane's armies. In 1437, it fell under the control of the Shirvanshahs of Azerbaijan. During the 16th century Derbent was the arena for wars between Turkey and Persia ruled by the Iranian Safavid dynasty. Ottoman Empire gained control of the city following the Battle of the Torches in 1583 and Ottoman ownership was secured with the Treaty of Istanbul of 1590.By the 1735 Ganja treaty Derbent fell within the Persian state. In 1722, during the Russo-Persian War, Peter the Great of Russia wrested the town from the Persians, but in 1736 AD the supremacy of Nadir Shah was again recognized. In 1747 AD, Derbent became the capital of the khanate of the same name. During the Persian Expedition of 1796 AD, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under Valerian Zubov. As a consequence of the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813 AD—between Russian and Persia—Derbent became part of the Russian Empire.
Oral (Kazakh: Орал), Uralsk (Russian: Уральск) in Russian, formerly known as Yaitsk (Russian: Яицк, until 1775), Kazakhstan. - Founded in 1613 AD by Cossacks. Renamed Uralsk in 1775 AD.
Kiev, Ukraine.
Barcelona, Spain.
Marseilles, France.
Brindisi, Italy.
Venice, Italy.
Genoa, Italy.
Bordeaux, France.
Naples, Italy.
Eedinburgh, Capital of Schotland, U.K. - In the 19Th Century: Important Port City of the British Empire
Liverpool, England, U.K. - In the 19Th Century:  By the start of the 19th century, 40% of the world's trade was passing through Liverpool and the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Major Industrial Harbor and Port of the Royal Navy.
Glasgow, Scotland, U.K. - Glasgow's population had surpassed that of Edinburgh by 1821 AD. Despite the crisis caused by the City of Glasgow Bank's collapse in 1878, growth continued and by the end of the 19th century it was one of the cities known as the "Second City of the Empire" and was producing more than half Britain's tonnage of shipping and a quarter of all locomotives in the world. It was amjor industrial center and harbor.
Stockholm, Capital of Sweden. -
Trabzon (Turkish: Trabzon), Trabzon Province, Turkey. - The city was founded as Τραπεζοῦς (Trapezous) by Miletan traders (traditionally in 756 BC).  The city became part of the Ottoman Empire after 1461 AD. The city was the site of one of the key battles between the Ottoman and Russian armies during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I which resulted in the capture of Trabzon by the Russian Caucasus Army.
Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Russian: Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика), or Kabardino-Balkaria (Russian: Кабарди́но-Балка́рия, Kabardino-Balkariya), part of the Russian Federation. - Caucasus.
Verkhoyansk (Russian: Верхоя́нск; Sakha: Үөһээ Дьааҥы (Üöhəə Çaaŋı), town in Sakha (or  Yakutia) Republic, the Russia Federation. - Based on a Cossack Ostrog founed in 1638 AD. The settlement was moved 90 miles up river in 1775 AD. Between the 1860s and 1917 AD the town was a place of political exile known for its exceptionally low winter temperatures.
Cishiga, also known as Gijinsk..
of Anadir
Olutorsk Bay
Kuriles Straights
Matsmai Straight
Port Imperia, Russia -
Amginsky Ulus (Russian: Амгинский улус; Sakha: Амма улууһа) is an ulus (district) of the Sakha (or Yakutia) Republic, Russia. - In the 19Th Century: Amginskaia, Russia.
Ust-Maysky Ulus (Russian: Усть-Майский улус; Sakha: Уус-Маайа улууһа) is an ulus (district) of the Sakha (or Yakutia) Republic, Russia. - In the 19Th Century: Ust-Maiskara.
Nizhnekolymsk (Russian: Нижнеколы́мск) is a village (selo) in Nizhnekolymsky Ulus of the Sakha (or Yakutia) Republic, Russia. - In the 19Th Century: Nino Kolimsk or Nejnei Kolimsk.
Cape Baranov
Cape Chelagskoy
Kromskaya      Bay
Borghai      Bay
Nordwik  Bay
Petrovsk  Bay
Khatangskoe, or Khtangskoye, Russia.
Ust-Yansky Ulus (Russian: Усть-Янский улус) is an ulus (district) of the Sakha (or Yakutia) Republic, Russian Federation. - In the 19Th Century:  Settlement in the Yana River Delta.
Ust Villuisk, Yakutia Republic, Russian Federation. - 2002 Cenus says around 25 to 26 thousand people live in Ust Vilyuisk. There is an airport at Vilyuisky ulus. - In the 19Th Century: remote settlement in Yakutia Province.
Magadan (Russian: Магада́н) Magadan Oblast, Russia. -  In the 19Th Century: Tauiskoi, or Tauyiskoye, a small settlement not officially titled. Officialy founded in 1929 AD on the site of an earlier settlement from the 1920s, it was granted the status of town in 1939. From 1932 to 1953 it was the administrative center of the Dalstroy concern and its corrective labor camp system.
Ostrovnoi or Ostrovnoye (Russian: Островно́е) is a rural locality (a selo) in Bilibinsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russiaian Federation. - Population as of 2006 was 420, of which 340 were indigenous peoples. A Gold Mine (Kupol Gold) operates near the Town. The village is a historical centre for the region, as it was the site of an ostrog built as Russians began to explore and lay claim to the regions.
Bolheretsk, or Ust-Bolsheretsky District (Russian: Усть-Большере́цкий райо́н) is an administrative and municipal district (raion) of Kamchatka Krai, Russia; one of the eleven in the krai. Its administrative center is the rural locality (a selo) of Ust-Bolsheretsk.[1] District's population: 10,347. - In the 19Th Century: ...
Markovo (Russian: Марково) - Remote settlement on the Anadir River.
Russian Soldiers camp at Mogao Caves, Dunhuang. Damaging Statues. 2nd Half 19Th Century.
Uliatstai, Capital of Dzavkhan Aimag, Republic of Mongolia - In 19Th Century: Important stop-over for trade Caravans connected by camel caravan routes with Urga (now Ulaanbaatar) in the east, Khovd in the west, Barkol and other points in Xinjiang in the southwest, and Hohhot in the southeast.
Perovsk (Uzbek: Xiva / Хива;Perovsk (Russian: Перовск, 1867–1925) and Fort Perovsky (Russian: Форт Перовский, 1853–1867), currently: Kyzylorda (Kazakh: Қызылорда / Qızılorda; or Kzyl-Orda (Russian: Кзыл-Орда, 1925–1991), Administrative Capital of Kyzylorda District, Kazakhstan. - Founded in 1820 AD. Built upon the village of Ak-Mechet and Kokand Fortress. After a battle in 1853 ADchanged into Russian hands and renamed as Fort Petrovsky. The City was briefly Capital of Kazakhstanafter establishment of that Nation in 1825 AD (under Russian auspices).
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Doha (الدوحة), Emirate of Qatar - Established 1825 AD as Al-Bidda.Part of Ottoman Empire 1871–1916 ; British Protectorate 1916 - 1971 AD.
Nizhny Novgorod (Gorki), - No historic information available.
Angora (Greek: Ancira), Today: Ankara, Capital of Turkey.