The Great Khans of the Mongol Empire
A Schematic Map of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan (TeMuJin) and descendants through the several stages of conquest in its short but Impressive Existence in History.
Timeline depicts the Mongol Conquest starting in the Year 1206 AD, when Genghis Khan first united the Mongol-Turkic Tribes of Mongolia and Lake BayKal becoming Khan and King of Mongolia and the Tribes.
The first Peoples to suffer from the Mongol Invasions were the Western Xia and Uygur-Turks between 1207 AD and 1210 AD. Thereafter, in 1211 AD the Khans' Armies start marching East across the Gobi Desert and begin their assault on Jin Dynasty (North) China. In the year 1218 AD the Mongols captured territory in south Kazachstan and the Tarim River Basin (north and south route of silk road in China). In that same year of 1218 AD, the Khwarezmian Shah Muhammad is so unwise as to provoke the Great Mongol Khan leading to the invasion of Transoxiania (modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and southwest Kazakhstan) in 1219 AD.
By the year 1221 AD Transoxiania largely subdued reaching the Caspian Sea shores, but the Mongols keep going and reach the Kalka River in Georgia in 1223 AD. 1227 AD Genghis Khan dies at 60 years of Age.
1237 AD marks the year when the Northern Jin Dynasty (1115 AD to 1234 AD) of China was annihilated, while 1259 AD marks the year when the Southern Song Dynasty (1127 AD - 1279 AD) of China was overpowered conquering ancient China above the Yangtze River.
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Map China - History - Mongol Empire & Yuan Dynasty in Time
This page was last updated on: October 19, 2017
Himalayan Mt. Range
Mt. Range
Kievan Rus′
Byzantine Empire
Dominions of Timur
Yuan Dynasty Empire of Great Khan
Khanate of Chagatai
Jin China
Song China
Kunmo = Kumul = Hami (Hami Prefecture, Xinjiang AR, China)
Kunlun Mt. Range
Mediterranean Sea
Black Sea
Tashkent (Uzbekistan)
Beijing (Hebei Province)
Lhasa, Tibet
Xi'An (Shaanxi Province)
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Ning Xia Fu = Yichuan  (Ningxia Province, China)
A Former Part of the Imperial Inner City, now Park o/t Peoples Culture
Nan King (Nanjing)
Kathmandu (Nepal)
Lanzhou - Crossing o/t Yellow River (Gansu Province, China)
Dunhuang (Gansu Province, China)
JiaYuGuan (Gansu Province, China)
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Map 1 of the Silk Road during the early Tang Dynasty Era. Clearly depicts the North & South Routes West of Dunhuang as well as the lost civilizations of Loulan and Hotan.
Designates Indian Controlled Territory
Turfan = Turpan (Xinjiang AR, China)
Kashgar (Xinjiang AR, China)
Samarkand - former KangGuo (Uzbekistan)
Buchara (Bochara) (Uzbekistan)
Tehran (Iran)
Merv (Antioch) (Near Current Day Mary in Turkmenistan)
Baghdad (Iraq)
Damascus (Syria)
Cairo (Egypt)
Alexandria - Founded by Alexander the Great (Current Day Egypt)
Palmyra (Syria)
Aleppo (Syria)
Mashad (Iran)
fragmented into 4 large parts, which became independent after the 1294 AD death of Kublai Khan, the fifth and last Great Khan of the Empire.
Part of Roman Byzantine Empire
3) The Il Khanate of Persia or Dominions of Timur (Lenk). Il Khanate was founded by Hulagu in 1260 AD. These domains mainly included the cities of ancient Persia and Parthia but stretched as far south-west as current day Baghdad in Iraq and the Euphrates river. Today ancients names such as Merv (Antioch), Askhabad and Mashad in Iran were the main centers of civilization including trade, religion and learning.
Satellite image of China and North-East Asia, with a super-imposed schematic Map of the location and Path of the Great Wall as constructed during the Reign of the Ming Dynasty. Included for reference are City names, geographical features of landscape, Names and locations of Passes on the Great Wall of China.
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Kabul (Afghanistan)
Peshawar (Tribal Area's of Pakistan)
Termez (Uzbekistan- on Afghan Border)
Yarkant = Yarkent (Xinjiang AR, China)
Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan)
Almati (Kazakhstan)
Ashkhabad = Today Ashgabat (Turkmenistan)
Lahore (Pakistan)
Gobi Desert
LuoYang - Wei & Eastern Han Dynasty Capital of China (Henan Province)
Datong - Wei Dynasty Capital of China (Shanxi Province)
Khanates and Kingdoms of the Mongol Empire :
Khiva (Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan)
Loulan (Xinjiang AR, China)
Khotan = Hotan (Xinjiang AR, China)
Rome (Today Capital of Italy)
Napels (Today Italy)
Constantinopel  (Today Istanbul, Capital of Turkey)
Athens  (Today Athens. Greece)
Lake BayKal
Lake Balkash
UlaanBataar (Capital of Mongolia)
New Delhi (India)
Aralsk (Kazakhstan)
Calcutta (India)
Mumbai (India)
Calicut (India)
Bhopal (India)
Amritsar (India)
Karachi (Pakistan)
Hohhot (Inner Mongolia)
Kunming (Yunnan Province)
Canton - now Guangzhou (GuangDong Province)
Muscat (Sultanate of Oman)
Doha (Emirate of Qatar)
Mecca  (Saudi Arabia)
Aden (Yemen)
Xining (Qinghai Province, China)
It would be another 20 years until 1279 AD before all resistance seized and all of China was taken. The Kublai Khan had himself crowned Emperor of China in that Year, establishing the Yuan Dynasty.
Last Year shown is the Year 1294 AD when the Mongol Empire reached its largest geographical size, a record 22% of world land area, but through lack of  central leadership and over-expansion
Japan ->
Golden Horde
Mongol Khanate
Kiev (Ukraine)
Sahara Desert
Sahara Desert
The First Khan of the Mongol Empire was founding father Genghis Khan or TeMuJin, who was crowned Khan of the Mongols after being elected in a Council
of Tribal Elders (Kuriltai) in 1206 AD.
In 1227 AD Genghis Khan died and was succeeded by Ogedei, his third son, who was crowned Great Khan in that same year.
The second Great Khan, Ogedei Khan died in 1241 AD. After a 5 year delay and regency period of the widow, the son of Ogedei, GuYuk was elected in Kuriltai and crowned the Great Mongke Khan. The Mongke Khan was the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire.

Following the Death of Mongke Khan the succession is marred by internal strife within the Royal Family. The Mongke Khan died at an early age in 1259 AD, after only 8 short years of Reign. This left room for a claim to the throne by younger brothers Arik Boke and Kubilai. Due to the fact that Arik Boke was reigning the heartland of the Tribes (The Mongol Khanate), while his brother Kubilai was on Military Campaigns in South China (near Chongqing and in Yunnan Province) the former was able to have himself elected in Kuriltai and crowned Great Khan. Arik Boke was the Fourth Great Khan.
Upon hearing of the news, Kublai at once halted his campaigns against the Song in China and turned back towards the Mongol heartlands. in April of 1260 AD, Kublai had himself crowned Khan by loyalist, providing an alternative to the throne and throwing the Mongol Empire into chaos. A bitter 4 year Civil War ensued, ending with the capture of Arik Boke in 1264 AD.  In that same year Kublai became the Fifth and Final Great Khan of the Empire. His brother Arik Boke died in captivity 2 years later.

The Kublai would however be the Last Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, as the civil war against his brother Arik Boke had destroyed the already fragile internal solidarity among the Mongol Tribes. The internal unity would never return.
In 1271 AD a city near current day Beijing, Dadu or Khanbalikh became the Capital of the Mongol Rule in China. By 1279 AD the final Song remnants in China were subdued, sounding in the Yuan Dynasty of China, established by the Great Khan Kublai to rule over China, Mongolia, Manchuria and Korea. However mighty the Kublai and his Dynasty of descendants, their title as Great Khan would never again be recognized by the other Mongol Khanates.
The Five Great Khanates of the Mongol Empire are in succession -
1) Mongol Khanate, the original domain of the Mongol Tribes united by the first Great Khan, Genghis Khan. It consist of area's in current day Mongolia, Russia and Kazakhstan and Lake Baykal.
2) The Chagatai Khanate, consisting mainly of the conquered Silk Road Cities and territories of the Western Xia (Xi Hsia) and Uygurs (ethnic minority of China today) in Ningxia province and the Tarim River Basin + Kashgar City. Later Transoxiania (Former Kwarezmian Shah) was added, completing this Khanate.
4) The Khanate of the Golden Horde (Aurea Orda) is also known as Kipchak Khanate. These are the united area's of the Blue Horde of the West and the White (Russian) Horde of the East. These were not nearly as peacful and coexistant as is suggested. For ease this area is generally described as the Golden Horde since both hordes were united at a very late date under Toktamish Khan.
5?) The Yuan Dynasty of China, eventhough United with the Mongol Khanate of the heartland under the Reigns of Kublai Great Khan, can be viewed as a seperate Khanate and sovereign entity. Although nominally under Mongol Control the Yuan Dynasty was forced to adopt Chinese Style and Culture to accomodate the political situation. Furthermore, among things due to the heavy racial discrimination within the Mongol Empire's ruling apparatus favoring Mongols and Manchus above the Han Chinese, the Han hated the Mongols and detested it as an unwanted Foreign Invasion.
After the demise of the Mongol Empire by 1294 AD, the Yuan Dynasty would go on to Rule its "Chinese Khanate" until 1378 AD, after which Han Chinese Territory reverted back to its independent Sovreignty under The Ming Dynasty of China (1378 AD - 1644 AD). Long into the Ming Dynasty - Han China and the Mongol Khanate and its various tribes would be in a State of perpetual war with eachother. Not to mention the Manchu Tribes of the North-East.
KaiFeng (Henan Province) - Jin Dynasty Capital of China
The Il Khanate collapsed in the 14Th Century immediatly after its Zenith of Power and Prosperity under the reign of Abu Sa'id. The Il Khanate shattered after his death in 1335 AD, however the lands of the Il-Khanate were eventually reunited under Timur Lenk (Tamerlane) into the "Timurid" Empire (1370 AD - 1405 AD).
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